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  1. Pre-hospital identification of major trauma in elderly patients is key for delivery of optimal care, however triage of this group is challenging. Elderly-specific triage criteria may be valuable. This systemat...

    Authors: Adam J. Boulton, Donna Peel, Usama Rahman and Elaine Cole
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:127
  2. Unused ('idle') peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) are those not used within 24 hours of insertion. There is little data on cannulation practices and idle PIVC rates in emergency settings, especially the pre...

    Authors: Hugo Evison, Amy Sweeny, Jamie Ranse, Mercedes Carrington, Nicole Marsh, Joshua Byrnes, Claire M. Rickard, Peter J. Carr and Gerben Keijzers
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:126
  3. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with increased risk of traumatic injury, and has negative impact on clinical outcome in trauma patients. Previous studies have focused on specific drugs...

    Authors: Henrik Andreas Torp, Svetlana Skurtveit, Nils Oddvar Skaga, Ingebjørg Gustavsen, Jon Michael Gran and Leiv Arne Rosseland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:125
  4. The extent to which Point-of-care of ultrasound (POCUS) is used in different European helicopter EMS (HEMS) is unknown. We aimed to study the availability, perception, and future aspects of POCUS in the Europe...

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Marcus Rudolph, Jürgen Knapp, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Cor Slagt, Lars Jacobsen, Henryk Pich, Michael D. Christian, Didier Dandrifosse and Fikri M. Abu-Zidan
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:124
  5. The scientific evidence regarding the risk of delayed intracranial bleeding (DB) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in patients administered an antiplatelet agent (APA) is scant and incomplete. In additi...

    Authors: Giorgio Colombo, Mattia Bonzi, Elisa Fiorelli, Alessandro Jachetti, Viviana Bozzano, Giovanni Casazza, Monica Solbiati and Giorgio Costantino
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:123
  6. Self-reported health and life satisfaction are considered important outcomes in people surviving cardiac arrest. However, most previous studies have reported limited aspects on health, often based on composite...

    Authors: Patrik Hellström, Kristofer Årestedt and Johan Israelsson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:122
  7. Physical trauma is associated with mortality, long-term pain and morbidity. Effective pain management is fundamental in trauma care and opioids are indispensable for treating acute pain; however, the use and m...

    Authors: Jeanette Finstad, Olav Røise, Leiv Arne Rosseland, Thomas Clausen and Ingrid Amalia Havnes
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:121
  8. An incident command structure is commonly used to manage responses to major incidents. In the hospital incident command structure, the medical officer in charge (MOC) is in a key position. The decision-making ...

    Authors: Karin Hugelius, Monica Rådestad, H. Al-Dhahir and L. Kurland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:120
  9. There is no global consensus on the use of prehospital triage system in mass casualty incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most commonly used pre-existing prehospital triage systems for the...

    Authors: Amir Khorram-Manesh, Johan Nordling, Eric Carlström, Krzysztof Goniewicz, Roberto Faccincani and Frederick M. Burkle
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:119
  10. A spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most critical neurological emergencies a dispatcher can face in an emergency telephone call. No study has yet investigated which symptoms are presente...

    Authors: Asger Sonne, Sarita Egholm, Laurits Elgaard, Niklas Breindahl, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Vagn Eskesen, Freddy Lippert, Frans Boch Waldorff, Nicolai Lohse and Lars Simon Rasmussen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:118

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:149

  11. This study aimed to compare and validate the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA); cardiac arrest hospital prognosis (CAHP); non-shockable rhythm, unwitnessed arrest, long no-flow or long low-flow period, blo...

    Authors: Takumi Tsuchida, Kota Ono, Kunihiko Maekawa, Takeshi Wada, Kenichi Katabami, Tomonao Yoshida and Mineji Hayakawa
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:117
  12. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with non-specific chief complaints (NSC). Patients presenting with NSCs often have normal vital signs. It has previously been establish...

    Authors: Robert Ivic, Jouni Nurmi, Lisa Kurland, Veronica Vicente, Veronica Lindström, Therese Djärv, Johanna Kaartinen, Maaret Castrén and Katarina Bohm
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:116
  13. Incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest is reported to be 0.8 to 4.6 per 1,000 patient admissions. Patient survival to hospital discharge with favourable functional and neurological status is around 21–30%. Th...

    Authors: Alexander Fuchs, Dominic Käser, Lorenz Theiler, Robert Greif, Jürgen Knapp and Joana Berger-Estilita
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:115
  14. People exposed to electrical injuries are often admitted to hospital for observation. Current evidence suggests that patients who have a normal ECG on admission after a low-voltage injury, with no loss of cons...

    Authors: Jamal Ahmed, Charlotte Stenkula, Sherwan Omar, Josef Ghanima, Fredrik Førsund Bremtun, Jonas Bergan, Nezar Raouf and Waleed Ghanima
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:114
  15. Prehospital care for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies with some emergency medical systems recommending direct transport of patients with moderate to severe TBI to hospitals with specialist neu...

    Authors: Charlie Aletta Sewalt, Benjamin Yaël Gravesteijn, David Menon, Hester Floor Lingsma, Andrew I. R. Maas, Nino Stocchetti, Esmee Venema and Fiona E. Lecky
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:113
  16. Although the merit of pre-hospital critical care teams such as Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) has been universally recognized for patients with penetrating torso injuries who present with unstabl...

    Authors: M. Gavrilovski, J. E. Griggs, E. ter Avest and R. M. Lyon
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:112
  17. The COVID-19 pandemic limited hospital resources and necessitated interhospital transport of ICU-patients in order to provide critical care to all patients in the Netherlands. However, not all hospitals have a...

    Authors: Geert-Jan van Geffen, Ed J. Spoelder, Amanda Tijben and Cornelis Slagt
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:111
  18. Citizen responder programmes dispatch volunteer citizens to initiate resuscitation in nearby out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) before the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival. Little is known about th...

    Authors: Anne-Sofie Linde Jellestad, Fredrik Folke, Rune Molin, Rasmus Meyer Lyngby, Carolina Malta Hansen and Linn Andelius
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:110
  19. Authors: Iscander M. Maissan, Boris Vlottes, Sanne Hoeks, Jan Bosch, Robert Jan Stolker and Dennis den Hartog
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:109

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:87

  20. Motor vehicle collisions account for 1.3 million deaths and 50 million serious injuries worldwide each year. However, the majority of people involved in such incidents are uninjured or have injuries which do n...

    Authors: Tim Nutbeam, Rob Fenwick, Barbara May, Willem Stassen, Jason E. Smith, Lee Wallis, Mike Dayson and James Shippen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:108
  21. Calls to emergency medical lines are an essential component in the chain of survival. Operators make critical decisions based on information they elicit from callers. Although smooth cooperation is necessary, ...

    Authors: Jennifer Gerwing, Jon Erik Steen-Hansen, Trond Mjaaland, Bård Fossli Jensen, Olav Eielsen, Owen Matthew Truscott Thomas and Pål Gulbrandsen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:107
  22. There exists a therapeutic conflict between haemorrhage control and prevention of thromboembolic events following polytrauma and complications are not uncommon. Such opposing therapies can result in unexpected...

    Authors: Mathew Brun, Shane Brun, David Pearson and Martin Wullschleger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:106
  23. Organ donation after brain death is the standard practice in many countries. Rates are low globally. This study explores the potential national number of candidates for uncontrolled donations after cardiac dea...

    Authors: Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Timothy Xin Zhong Tan, Ejaz Latiff, Nur Shahidah, Yih Yng Ng, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Shir Lynn Lim, Pin Pin Pek, Han Nee Gan, Desmond Renhao Mao, Michael Yih Chong Chia, Si Oon Cheah, Lai Peng Tham and Marcus Eng Hock Ong
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:105
  24. In the ‘can’t intubate can’t oxygenate’ scenario, techniques to achieve front of neck access to the airway have been described in the literature but there is a lack of guidance on the optimal method for securi...

    Authors: Christopher J Groombridge, Amit Maini, Joseph Mathew, Yesul Kim, Mark Fitzgerald, De Villiers Smit and Gerard O’Reilly
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:104
  25. Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outc...

    Authors: Ester Holmström, Ilmar Efendijev, Rahul Raj, Pirkka T. Pekkarinen, Erik Litonius and Markus B. Skrifvars
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:103
  26. Previous studies have stated that hyperventilation often occurs in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mainly due to excessive ventilation frequencies, especially when a manual valve bag is used. Transport ven...

    Authors: Simon Orlob, Johannes Wittig, Christoph Hobisch, Daniel Auinger, Gabriel Honnef, Tobias Fellinger, Robin Ristl, Otmar Schindler, Philipp Metnitz, Georg Feigl and Gerhard Prause
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:102
  27. Blood alcohol level (BAL) has previously been considered as a factor influencing the outcome of injured patients. Despite the well-known positive correlation between alcohol-influenced traffic participation an...

    Authors: Thomas Brockamp, Andreas Böhmer, Rolf Lefering, Bertil Bouillon, Arasch Wafaisade, Manuel Mutschler, Paola Kappel and Matthias Fröhlich
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:101
  28. Despite a widely acknowledged increase in older people presenting with traumatic injury in western populations there remains a lack of research into the optimal prehospital management of this vulnerable patien...

    Authors: Michael Eichinger, Henry Douglas Pow Robb, Cosmo Scurr, Harriet Tucker, Stefan Heschl and George Peck
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:100
  29. In chemical incidents, infrequent but potentially disastrous, the World Health Organization calls for inter-organizational coordination of actors involved. Multi-organizational studies of chemical response cap...

    Authors: Anton Westman, Britt-Inger Saveman, Ulf Björnstig, Johan Hylander and Lina Gyllencreutz
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:99
  30. Self-Inflating Resuscitation Bags (SIRB) are common and essential tools in airway management and ventilation. They are often used in resuscitation and emergency anaesthesia outside the operating theatre. There...

    Authors: Sven Grauman, Joakim Johansson and Thomas Drevhammar
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:98
  31. In acute ischemic stroke, conjugated eye deviation (CED) is an evident sign of cortical ischemia and large vessel occlusion (LVO). We aimed to determine if an emergency dispatcher can recognise LVO stroke duri...

    Authors: Pauli E. T. Vuorinen, Jyrki P. J. Ollikainen, Pasi A. Ketola, Riikka-Liisa K. Vuorinen, Piritta A. Setälä and Sanna E. Hoppu
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:97
  32. As any traumatic event, avalanches could trigger psychological disorders on survivors. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among avalanche survivors and to evaluat...

    Authors: Charlotte Léonard, Anaëlle Charriau-Perret, Guillaume Debaty, Loïc Belle, Cécile Ricard, Caroline Sanchez, Pierre-Marie Dupré, Gregory Panoff, Thierry Bougerol, Damien Viglino and Marc Blancher
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:96
  33. There is a lack of knowledge how patients with COVID-19 disease differ from patients with similar signs or symptoms (but who will have a diagnosis other than COVID-19) in the prehospital setting. The aim of th...

    Authors: Markku Kuisma, Heini Harve-Rytsälä, Jussi Pirneskoski, James Boyd, Mitja Lääperi, Ari Salo and Tuukka Puolakka
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:95
  34. Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. Early outcome prediction in patients with TBI require reliable data input and stable prognostic models. The aim of this ...

    Authors: Djino Khaki, Virpi Hietanen, Alba Corell, Helena Odenstedt Hergès and Johan Ljungqvist
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:94
  35. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is the first-line nonsurgical treatment for severe blunt liver injury in patients, whereas operative management (OM) is recommended for hemodynamically unstable patien...

    Authors: Satoshi Tamura, Takaaki Maruhashi, Fumie Kashimi, Yutaro Kurihara, Tomonari Masuda, Tasuku Hanajima, Yuichi Kataoka and Yasushi Asari
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:66

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:93

  36. We aimed to investigate the medical characteristics of helicopter hoist operations (HHO) in HEMS missions.

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Jürgen Knapp, Michael Mann, Lorenz Meuli, Volker Lischke, Mario Tissi, Stephen Sollid, Simon Rauch, Volker Wenzel, Stefan Becker and Roland Albrecht
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:92
  37. Hypothermia significantly affects mortality and morbidity of newborns. Literature about severe accidental hypothermia in neonates is limited. We report a case of a neonate suffering from severe accidental hypo...

    Authors: Astrid Kuonen, Thomas Riva and Gabor Erdoes
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:91
  38. Temporary circulatory support is a bridge between acute circulatory failure and definitive treatment or recovery. Currently, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is considered to be one o...

    Authors: Hao Zhou, Yi Zhu, Zhongman Zhang, Jinru Lv, Wei Li, Deliang Hu, Xufeng Chen and Yong Mei
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:90
  39. Triage and triage related work has been performed in Swedish Emergency Departments (EDs) since the mid-1990s. According to two national surveys from 2005 to 2011, triage was carried out with different triage s...

    Authors: Sara C. Wireklint, Carina Elmqvist and Katarina E. Göransson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:89
  40. The European resuscitation council have highlighted emergency medical dispatch centres as an important key player for early recognition of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) and in providing dispatcher assi...

    Authors: Camilla Hardeland, Andreas Claesson, Marieke T. Blom, Stig Nikolaj Fasmer Blomberg, Fredrik Folke, Jacob Hollenberg, Jo Kramer-Johansen, Freddy Lippert, Anette Nord, Anne Mette Nygaard, Theresa Mariero Olasveengen, Mattias Ringh, Leif Svensson and Thea Palsgaard Møller
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:88
  41. Ambulance drivers in the Netherlands are trained to drive as fluent as possible when transporting a head injured patient to the hospital. Acceleration and deceleration have the potential to create pressure cha...

    Authors: Iscander M. Maissan, Boris Vlottes, Sanne Hoeks, Jan Bosch, Robert Jan Stolker and Dennis den Hartog
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:87

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:109

  42. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is recognized as first line ventilatory support for the management of acute pulmonary edema (APE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. We aimed to study...

    Authors: Adeline Dunand, Nicolas Beysard, Ludovic Maudet, Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Fabrice Dami, Lise Piquilloud, David Caillet-Bois and Mathieu Pasquier
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:85
  43. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mountain environment is challenging. Continuous chest compressions during transport or hoist rescue are almost impossible without mechanical chest compression devices. Current ...

    Authors: Egger Alexander, Tscherny Katharina, Fuhrmann Verena, Grafeneder Jürgen, Niederer Maximilian, Kienbacher Calvin, Schachner Andreas, Schreiber Wolfgang, Herkner Harald and Roth Dominik
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:84
  44. Placing a peripheral vein catheter can be challenging due to several factors, but using ultrasound as guidance increases the success rate. The purpose of this review is to investigate the knowledge already exi...

    Authors: Rasmus Jørgensen, Christian B. Laursen, Lars Konge and Pia Iben Pietersen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:83
  45. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is dependent on early recognition, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. The purpose of CPR is to maintain some blood flow unt...

    Authors: Ingvild B. M. Tjelmeland, Jan Wnent, Siobhan Masterson, Jo Kramer-Johansen and Jan-Thorsten Gräsner
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:82
  46. Thoracic trauma is commonplace and accounts for 50–70% of the injuries found in severe trauma. Little information is available in the literature as to timing of endotracheal intubation. The main objective of t...

    Authors: Adrien Cornillon, Juliette Balbo, Julien Coffinet, Thierry Floch, Mathieu Bard, Guillaume Giordano-Orsini, Jean-Marc Malinovsky, Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Daphne Michelet and Vincent Legros
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:81
  47. The management of penetrating wounds is a rare challenge for trauma surgeons in Germany and Central Europe as a result of the low incidence of this type of trauma. In Germany, penetrating injuries are reported...

    Authors: D Bieler, E Kollig, L Hackenberg, JH Rathjen, R Lefering and A Franke
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:80
  48. Mechanical chest compression devices are accepted alternatives for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) under specific circumstances. Current devices lack prospective and comparative data on their specific card...

    Authors: Robert Ruemmler, Jakob Stein, Bastian Duenges, Miriam Renz and Erik Kristoffer Hartmann
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:79

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