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  1. Injury severity measures are based either on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) or the International Classification of diseases (ICD). The latter is more convenient because routinely collected by clinicians fo...

    Authors: Stefano Di Bartolomeo, Silvia Tillati, Francesca Valent, Loris Zanier and Fabio Barbone

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:17

    Content type: Original research

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  2. Undressing the chest of a cardiac arrest victim may delay the initiation of chest compressions. Furthermore, expecting laypeople to undress the chest may increase bystander reluctance to perform cardiopulmonar...

    Authors: Rasmus B Mortensen, Christian B Høyer, Mathias K Pedersen, Peter G Brindley and Jens C Nielsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:16

    Content type: Original research

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  3. The inter-hospital transfer of patients is crucial to a well functioning trauma system, and the transfer process may serve as a quality indicator for regional trauma care. However, the assessment of the transf...

    Authors: Hans Morten Lossius, Thomas Kristiansen, Kjetil G Ringdal and Marius Rehn

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:15

    Content type: Commentary

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  4. Quality assessment of any trauma system involves the evaluation of the transferring patterns. This study aims to assess interfacility transfers in the absence of a formal trauma system setting and to estimate ...

    Authors: Stylianos Katsaragakis, Panagiotis G Drimousis, Eleftheria S Kleidi, Kostas Toutouzas, Eleftherios Lapidakis, Georgios Papadakis, Kritolaos Daskalakis, Andreas Larentzakis, Maria E Theodoraki and Dimitrios Theodorou

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:14

    Content type: Original research

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  5. We describe a system of scenario-based training using simple mannequins under realistic circumstances for the training of pre-hospital care providers.

    Authors: Per P Bredmose, Karel Habig, Gareth Davies, Gareth Grier and David J Lockey

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:13

    Content type: Original research

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  6. Calcium antagonist overdose can cause severe deterioration of hemodynamics unresponsible to treatment with beta adrenergic inotropes. The aim of the study was to evaluate in an experimental model the effects o...

    Authors: Jouni Kurola, Heli Leppikangas, Jarkko Magga, Leena Lindgren, Vesa Kiviniemi, Juha Rutanen and Esko Ruokonen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:12

    Content type: Original research

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  7. High-grade blunt renal trauma has been treated by arterial embolization (AE). However, it is unknown whether AE preserves renal function, because conventional renal function tests reflect total renal function ...

    Authors: Seiji Morita, Sadaki Inokuchi, Tomoatsu Tsuji, Tomokazu Fukushima, Shigeo Higami, Takeshi Yamagiwa and Iizuka Shinichi

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:11

    Content type: Original research

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  8. There is a lack of epidemiological knowledge on medical emergencies outside hospitals in Norway. The aim of the present study was to obtain representative data on the epidemiology of medical emergencies classi...

    Authors: Erik Zakariassen, Robert Anders Burman and Steinar Hunskaar

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:9

    Content type: Original research

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  9. Patients referred to a medical admission unit (MAU) represent a broad spectrum of disease severity. In the interest of allocating resources to those who might potentially benefit most from clinical interventio...

    Authors: Mikkel Brabrand, Lars Folkestad, Nicola Groes Clausen, Torben Knudsen and Jesper Hallas

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:8

    Content type: Review

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  10. A 48-year-old previously healthy woman suffered witnessed cardiac arrest in hospital. She achieved return of spontaneous circulation and was transferred to the intensive care unit. During the following 3 hours...

    Authors: Anders Rostrup Nakstad, Christian Eek, Dag Aarhus, Anne Larsen and Kristina Hermann Haugaa

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:7

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Ureteral trauma is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all urologic traumas. However, a missed ureteral injury can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the l...

    Authors: Bruno MT Pereira, Michael P Ogilvie, Juan Carlos Gomez-Rodriguez, Mark L Ryan, Diego Peña, Antonio C Marttos, Louis R Pizano and Mark G McKenney

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:6

    Content type: Review

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  12. The survival to discharge rate after unwitnessed, non-cardiac out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is dismal. We report the successful use of therapeutic hypothermia in a 26-year old woman with OHCA due to in...

    Authors: Michael Busch and Eldar Søreide

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:4

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Advanced resuscitation skills training is an important and enjoyable part of medical training, but requires small group instruction to ensure active participation of all students. Increases in student numbers ...

    Authors: Thomas C Hughes, Zoeb Jiwaji, Kamaldeep Lally, Antonia Lloyd-Lavery, Amrit Lota, Andrea Dale, Robert Janas and Christopher JK Bulstrode

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:3

    Content type: Original research

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  14. Therapeutic hypothermia has been proven to be effective in improving neurological outcome in patients after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Data concerning the effect of hypothermia treatm...

    Authors: Christian Storm, Jens Nee, Anne Krueger, Joerg C Schefold and Dietrich Hasper

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:2

    Content type: Original research

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  15. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been hard to assess due to the lack of standard definitions. Recently, the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-Stage Kidney (RIFLE) classification has been proposed to classify AK...

    Authors: Ernestina Gomes, Rui Antunes, Cláudia Dias, Rui Araújo and Altamiro Costa-Pereira

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:1

    Content type: Original research

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  16. Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, ta...

    Authors: Pål Comstedt, Merete Storgaard and Annmarie T Lassen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:67

    Content type: Original research

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  17. The induction of hypothermia for cellular protection is well established in several clinical settings. Its role in trauma patients, however, is controversial. This review discusses the benefits and complicatio...

    Authors: Tareq Kheirbek, Ashley R Kochanek and Hasan B Alam

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:65

    Content type: Review

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  18. Blunt Traumatic Pericardial Rupture (BTPR) with resulting cardiac herniation following chest trauma is an unusual and often fatal condition. Although there has been a multitude of case reports of this conditio...

    Authors: Peter B Sherren, Robert Galloway and Marie Healy

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:64

    Content type: Case report

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  19. An 80 years old man suffered a cardiac arrest shortly after arrival to his local health department. Basic Life Support was started promptly and nine minutes later, on evaluation by an Advanced Life Support tea...

    Authors: Mafalda Miranda, Pedro J Sousa, Jorge Ferreira, Maria J Andrade, Pedro A Gonçalves and Cristina Romão

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:63

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Patients with severe pelvic fractures represent about 3% of all skeletal fractures. Hemodynamic compromise in unstable pelvic fractures is associated with arterial hemorrhage in less than 20% of patients. Angi...

    Authors: Igor Jeroukhimov, Itamar Ashkenazi, Boris Kessel, Vladimir Gaziants, Amir Peer, Alexander Altshuler, Vladimir Nesterenko, Ricardo Alfici and Ariel Halevy

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:62

    Content type: Original research

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  21. Pain is a common condition among prehospital patients. The present study is designed to determine whether adding low-dose ketamine as additional analgesia improves the pain/nausea scores and hemodynamic parame...

    Authors: Patric Johansson, Poul Kongstad and Anders Johansson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:61

    Content type: Original research

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  22. Previous research shows that surgeon-performed ultrasound for patients presenting with abdominal pain in the emergency department leads both to higher diagnostic accuracy and to other benefits. We have evaluat...

    Authors: Anna Lindelius, Staffan Törngren, Laila Nilsson, Hans Pettersson and Johanna Adami

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:60

    Content type: Original research

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  23. Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple ma...

    Authors: Torben Wisborg, Guttorm Brattebø, Åse Brinchmann-Hansen and Kari Schrøder Hansen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:59

    Content type: Original research

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  24. Advanced airway management is a critical intervention that can harm the patient if performed poorly. The available literature on this subject is rich, but it is difficult to interpret due to a huge variability...

    Authors: Stephen JM Sollid, David Lockey and Hans Morten Lossius

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:58

    Content type: Original research

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  25. In critical injury, the occurrence of increased oxidative stress or a reduced antioxidant status has been observed. The purpose of this study was to correlate the degree of oxidative stress, by measuring the o...

    Authors: Leonard T Rael, Raphael Bar-Or, Kristin Salottolo, Charles W Mains, Denetta S Slone, Patrick J Offner and David Bar-Or

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:57

    Content type: Original research

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  26. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification (HO) in multiple trauma patients may lead to follow up surgery, furthermore the long-term outcome can be restricted. Knowledge of the effect of surgical treatment on format...

    Authors: Christian Zeckey, Frank Hildebrand, Philipp Mommsen, Julia Schumann, Michael Frink, Hans-Christoph Pape, Christian Krettek and Christian Probst

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:55

    Content type: Original research

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  27. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is now a well-documented part of post-resuscitation care. Implementation of TH into daily clinical practice has be...

    Authors: Eldar Søreide

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:54

    Content type: Commentary

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  28. Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling result...

    Authors: Antti Kämäräinen, Sanna Hoppu, Tom Silfvast and Ilkka Virkkunen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:53

    Content type: Review

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  29. Despite many years of research, outcome after cardiac arrest is dismal. Since 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommends in its guidelines the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°) for 12 to 24...

    Authors: Wilhelm Behringer, Jasmin Arrich, Michael Holzer and Fritz Sterz

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:52

    Content type: Review

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  30. A 26 year old male was impaled through his chest and upper abdomen with an iron angle, one and half meter long and five centimeters thick. The iron angle entered the chest, through the epigastrium and exited p...

    Authors: Chhavi Sawhney, Nita D'souza, Biplab Mishra, Babita Gupta and Subir Das

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:50

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Although therapeutic concepts of patients with major trauma have improved during recent years, organ dysfunction still remains a frequent complication during clinical course in intensive care units. It has pre...

    Authors: Michael Frink, Martijn van Griensven, Philipp Kobbe, Thomas Brin, Christian Zeckey, Bernhard Vaske, Christian Krettek and Frank Hildebrand

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:49

    Content type: Original research

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  32. Trauma is the leading cause of death for young people in Norway. Studies indicate that several of these deaths are avoidable if the patient receives correct initial treatment. The trauma team is responsible fo...

    Authors: Magnus Hjortdahl, Amund H Ringen, Anne-Cathrine Naess and Torben Wisborg

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:48

    Content type: Original research

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  33. Critically ill patients commonly present to the ED and require aggressive resuscitation. Patient transfer to an ICU environment in an expedient manner is considered optimal care. However, this patient populati...

    Authors: Robert S Green and Janet K MacIntyre

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:47

    Content type: Original research

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  34. Combined cervicothoracical vascular traumas are very uncommon, mostly resulting from penetrating injuries. These injuries are accompanied with very high morbidity and mortality rates. In this manuscript we pre...

    Authors: Boris Kessel, Itamar Ashkenazi, Isaak Portnoy, Dan Hebron, Dani Eilam and Ricardo Alfici

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:46

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Death due to trauma is the leading cause of lost life years worldwide, with haemorrhage being responsible for 30-40% of trauma mortality and accounting for almost 50% of the deaths the initial 24 h. On admissi...

    Authors: Pär I Johansson, Trine Stissing, Louise Bochsen and Sisse R Ostrowski

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:45

    Content type: Review

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  36. In this commentary we argue that fully alert, stable and co-operative trauma patients do not require the application of a semi-rigid cervical collar, even if they are suspected of underlying cervical spine fra...

    Authors: Jonathan Benger and Julian Blackham

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:44

    Content type: Commentary

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  37. Although relatively rare, blunt injury to thoracic great vessels is the second most common cause of trauma related death after head injury. Over the last twenty years, the paradigm for management of these deva...

    Authors: James V O'Connor, Christopher Byrne, Thomas M Scalea, Bartley P Griffith and David G Neschis

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:42

    Content type: Review

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  38. Lodox-Statscan is a whole-body, skeletal and soft-tissue, low-dose X-ray scanner Anterior-posterior and lateral thoraco-abdominal studies are obtained in 3-5 minutes with only about one-third of the radiation ...

    Authors: Dimitrios S Evangelopoulos, Simone Deyle, Heinz Zimmermann and Aristomenis K Exadaktylos

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:41

    Content type: Commentary

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  39. Acute severe asthma is one of the most common medical emergency situations in childhood, and physicians caring for acutely ill children are regularly faced with this condition. In this article we present a sum...

    Authors: Knut Øymar and Thomas Halvorsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:40

    Content type: Review

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  40. To assess the theoretical and practical knowledge of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) by trained Air-rescue physicians in Switzerland.

    Authors: Catherine Heim, Patrick Schoettker, Nicolas Gilliard and Donat R Spahn

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:39

    Content type: Original research

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  41. Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17(Suppl 3):O16

    Content type: Oral presentation

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 17 Supplement 3

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