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Table 1 Functions of the glycocalyx

From: The endothelial glycocalyx and its disruption, protection and regeneration: a narrative review

Function Reference
Forms the interface between the vessel wall and the bloodstream Reitsma et al. 2007 [5]
Alphonsus and Rodseth 2014 [10]
Maintains the colloid osmotic gradient of the vascular barrier Rehm et al. 2007 [12]
Acts as a barrier to:  
 vascular exchange of water and solutes Reitsma et al. 2007 [5]
 leukocyte–endothelium adhesion Henry and Duling 1999 [13]
Lipowsky et al. 2011 [14]
Constantinescu et al. 2003 [15]
Becker et al. 2015 [19]
Acts as a sieve for plasma proteins Vink and Duling 2000 [16]
Lipowsky et al. 2011 [14]
Provides binding sites for everal molecules, including:  
 antithrombin III Alphonsus and Rodseth 2014 [10]
 tissue factor pathway inhibitors Reitsma et al. 2007 [5]
 lipoprotein lipase Kolářová et al. 2014 [18]
 vascular endothelial growth factor  
 fibroblast growth factor
 extracellular superoxide dismutase
 hyaluronic acid molecules
Acts as a shear stress sensor and regulator of mechanotransduction Reitsma et al. 2007 [5]
Florian et al. 2003 [17]
Yen et al. 2014 [20]
Becker et al. 2015 [19]