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Table 4 Risk and protective factors of impaired consciousness at 14 days (N = 411, 19 patients without evaluation)

From: Prehospital risk factors of mortality and impaired consciousness after severe traumatic brain injury: an epidemiological study

  Univariate model Multivariate model
  OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Patient-related risks     
Age 0.99 (0.98-1.00) 0.024 1.00 (0.98; 1.01) 0.837
GCS ≥9 in ED 1   1  
GCS <9 in ED 9.57 (5.34-17.14) <0.0001 7.01 (3.64; 13.53) <0.0001
Normal pupil reaction in ED 1   1  
Abnormal pupil reaction in ED 3.07 (1.78-5.29) <0.0001 1.29 (0.68-2.45) 0.442
ISS <25 1   1  
ISS ≥25 4.54 (2.51-8.20) <0.0001 2.79 (1.43-5.44) 0.0003
Falls 1   1  
Road traffic accidents 2.05 (1.26; 3.33) 0.004 1.35 (0.72; 2.53) 0.348
Others mechanisms 1.03 (0.52; 2.02) 0.943 0.69 (0.30; 1.63) 0.398
Treatable prehospital risks     
Hypotension (syst BP <90) 2.16 (0.67-6.97) 0.196 1.38 (0.29; 6.58) 0.688
Hypoxemia (SpO2 <90%) 5.54 (2.71-11.30) <0.0001 4.11 (1.72-9.84) 0.001
Hypothermia (<35.0°C) 2.23 (1.33-3.73) 0.002 1.43 (0.77-2.68) 0.259
Intervention-related risks     
Prehospital time 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 0.296   
Direct admission 1   1  
Indirect admission 0.37 (0.20-0.68) 0.001 0.47 (0.23-0.97) 0.041