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  1. The 2015 AHA guidelines recommend that amiodarone should be used for patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF). However, the optimal time interval between the incoming call and amiodarone adminis...

    Authors: Dong Keon Lee, Yu Jin Kim, Giwoon Kim, Choung Ah. Lee, Hyung Jun Moon, Jaehoon Oh, Hae Chul Yang, Han Joo Choi, Young Taeck Oh and Seung Min Park

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:109

    Content type: Original research

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  2. Treatment of blunt splenic injury has changed over the past decades. Nonoperative management (NOM) is the treatment of choice. Adequate patient selection is a prerequisite for successful NOM. Impaired mental s...

    Authors: Michel Teuben, Roy Spijkerman, Taco Blokhuis, Roman Pfeifer, Henrik Teuber, Hans-Christoph Pape and Luke Leenen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:108

    Content type: Original research

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  3. The aim of this Letter to the Editor was to report some important biases in a recently published Article. We agreed with the notion by Yamamoto et al. that the effects of epinephrine regarding was limited with...

    Authors: Makoto Aoki and Toshikazu Abe

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:107

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  4. Considering the significant morbidity and mortality of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, only little data on survival or quality of life after successful resuscitation is available in Europe. Additionally, econo...

    Authors: Raphael Ruch, Laura Stoessel, Philipp Stein, Michael Thomas Ganter and Daniel Anthony Button

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:106

    Content type: Original research

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  5. Accidental hypothermia (AH) is defined as an involuntary decrease in core body temperature to < 35 °C. The management of AH has been progressing over the last few decades, and numerous techniques for rewarming...

    Authors: Makoto Watanabe, Tasuku Matsuyama, Sachiko Morita, Naoki Ehara, Nobuyoshi Miyamae, Yohei Okada, Takaaki Jo, Yasuyuki Sumida, Nobunaga Okada, Masahiro Nozawa, Ayumu Tsuruoka, Yoshihiro Fujimoto, Yoshiki Okumura, Tetsuhisa Kitamura and Bon Ohta

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:105

    Content type: Original research

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  6. Tourniquet is the most widely used and effective first-aid equipment for controlling hemorrhage of injured limb in battlefield. However, time-out application of tourniquets leads to ischemic-necrosis of skelet...

    Authors: Changmei Weng, Kai Lan, Tao Li, Liangchao Zhang, Jianmin Wang and Xinan Lai

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:104

    Content type: Original research

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  7. Severe accidental hypothermia (AH) is life threatening. Thus, prognostic prediction in AH is essential to rapidly initiate intensive care. Several studies on prognostic factors for AH are known, but none have ...

    Authors: Kenji Kandori, Yohei Okada, Tasuku Matsuyama, Sachiko Morita, Naoki Ehara, Nobuhiro Miyamae, Takaaki Jo, Yasuyuki Sumida, Nobunaga Okada, Makoto Watanabe, Masahiro Nozawa, Ayumu Tsuruoka, Yoshihiro Fujimoto, Yoshiki Okumura, Tetsuhisa Kitamura and Ryoji Iiduka

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:103

    Content type: Original research

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  8. A national Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was introduced in Denmark in 2014 to ensure the availability of physician-led critical care for all patients regardless of location.

    Authors: Karen Alstrup, Thea Palsgaard Møller, Lars Knudsen, Troels Martin Hansen, Jens Aage Kølsen Petersen, Leif Rognås and Charlotte Barfod

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:102

    Content type: Original research

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  9. Coma of unknown etiology (CUE) is a major challenge in emergency medicine. CUE is caused by a wide variety of pathologies that require immediate and targeted treatment. However, there is little empirical data ...

    Authors: Wolf Ulrich Schmidt, Christoph J. Ploner, Maximilian Lutz, Martin Möckel, Tobias Lindner and Mischa Braun

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:101

    Content type: Original research

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  10. The emergency medical healthcare system outside hospital varies greatly across the globe - even within the western world. Within the last ten years, the demand for emergency medical service systems has increas...

    Authors: Tim Alex Lindskou, Søren Mikkelsen, Erika Frischknecht Christensen, Poul Anders Hansen, Gitte Jørgensen, Ole Mazur Hendriksen, Hans Kirkegaard, Peter Anthony Berlac and Morten Breinholt Søvsø

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:100

    Content type: Review

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  11. Traumatic brain injuries continue to be a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Most traumatic brain injuries are classified as mild, with a low but not negligible risk of intracranial hemorr...

    Authors: Sebastian Svensson, Tomas Vedin, Linus Clausen, Per-Anders Larsson and Marcus Edelhamre

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:99

    Content type: Original research

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  12. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated inflammation following an infection. However, the impact of this definition on patient care is not fully clear. This study invest...

    Authors: Jenny Klimpel, Lorenz Weidhase, Michael Bernhard, André Gries and Sirak Petros

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:98

    Content type: Original research

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  13. Resuscitation efforts for traumatic patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are not always futile. Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) during emergency calls could increase t...

    Authors: Chien-Hsin Lu, Pin-Hui Fang and Chih-Hao Lin

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:97

    Content type: Original research

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  14. The population of the Kingdom of Bhutan is scattered in small villages throughout the eastern Himalaya. Infants born prematurely in villages have no access to neonatal intensive care until they are transported...

    Authors: Charles Haviland Mize, Lhab Dorji and Ken Zafren

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:95

    Content type: Case report

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    The Editorial to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:96

  15. Access to an Emergency Medical Communication Centre is essential for the population in emergency situations. Handling inbound calls without delay requires managing activity, process and outcome measures of the...

    Authors: Yann Penverne, Brice Leclere, Eric Lecarpentier, Jean-Sébastien Marx, Benjamin Gicquel, Laurent Goix and Paul-Georges Reuter

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:94

    Content type: Original research

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  16. Studies have shown that providing adequate ventilation during CPR is essential. While hypoventilation is often feared by most caregivers on the scene, the most critical problem remains hyperventilation. We dev...

    Authors: Abdo Khoury, Alban De Luca, Fatimata S. Sall, Lionel Pazart and Gilles Capellier

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:93

    Content type: Original research

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  17. Chest pain is a frequent reason for calls in emergency medical communication centre (EMCC). Detecting a coronary origin by phone is a challenge. This is especially so as the presentations differ according to g...

    Authors: Paul-Georges Reuter, Catherine Pradeau, Samantha Huo Yung Kai, Thibault Lhermusier, Arnaud Bourdé, Eric Tentillier, Xavier Combes, Vanina Bongard, Jean-Louis Ducassé and Sandrine Charpentier

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:92

    Content type: Original research

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  18. The Basic-Trauma Management (BTM) course has been taught to third-year medical students in small groups for many years without substantial changes. With the introduction of a new curriculum for Swiss medical s...

    Authors: Joana Berger-Estilita, Sabine Nabecker and Robert Greif

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:91

    Content type: Original research

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  19. For neonates and children requiring decompression of tension pneumothorax, specific recommendations for the choice of needle type and size are missing. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine opti...

    Authors: Georg Leonhard, Daniel Overhoff, Lucas Wessel, Tim Viergutz, Marcus Rudolph, Michael Schöler, Holger Haubenreisser and Tom Terboven

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:90

    Content type: Original research

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  20. Making ethically sound treatment limitations in prehospital care is a complex topic. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) physicians were surveyed on their experiences with limitations of care orders in...

    Authors: Heidi Kangasniemi, Piritta Setälä, Heini Huhtala, Antti Kämäräinen, Ilkka Virkkunen, Joonas Tirkkonen, Arvi Yli-Hankala and Sanna Hoppu

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:89

    Content type: Original research

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  21. Much effort has been made to explore how patients with advanced chronic illness and their families experience care when they attend the Emergency Department, and many studies have investigated how healthcare p...

    Authors: Silvia Di Leo, Sara Alquati, Cristina Autelitano, Massimo Costantini, Gianfranco Martucci, Francesco De Vincenzo, Beata Kuczynska, Alessandra Morini, Laura Trabucco, Raffaella Ursicelli, Gianluca Catania and Luca Ghirotto

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:88

    Content type: Original research

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  22. Children form a specific group of patients, as there are significant differences between children and adults in both anatomy and physiology. Difficult airway may be unanticipated or anticipated. Difficulties e...

    Authors: Wojciech Walas, Dawid Aleksandrowicz, Maria Kornacka, Tomasz Gaszyński, Ewa Helwich, Marek Migdał, Andrzej Piotrowski, Grażyna Siejka, Tomasz Szczapa, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska and Zenon P. Halaba

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:87

    Content type: Guideline

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  23. A reduction in pre-hospital scene time for patients with penetrating trauma is associated with reduced mortality, when combined with appropriate hospital triage. This study investigated the relationship betwee...

    Authors: Alan Cowley, Mark Durham, Duncan Aldred, Richard Crabb, Paul Crouch, Adam Heywood, Andy McBride, Julia Williams and Richard Lyon

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:86

    Content type: Original research

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  24. Chest pain is common in acute ambulance transports. This study aims to characterize and compare ambulance-transported chest pain patients to non-chest pain patients and evaluate if patient characteristics and ...

    Authors: Claus Kjær Pedersen, Carsten Stengaard, Kristian Friesgaard, Karen Kaae Dodt, Hanne Maare Søndergaard, Christian Juhl Terkelsen and Morten Thingemann Bøtker

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:84

    Content type: Original research

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  25. A debate regarding the potential harmful effects of rigid neck collar and backboard usage among prehospital and hospital care providers in Norway provoked the development of an evidence-based guideline. “The N...

    Authors: Nina Øye Thorvaldsen, Lars Didrik Flingtorp, Torben Wisborg and Elisabeth Jeppesen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:83

    Content type: Original research

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  26. Despite decades of improved strategy in conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR), survival rates of favorable neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) remains poor. It is indicated that the surv...

    Authors: Bo Liu, Qiang Zhang, Yong Liang, Yun Zhang, Xiaoli Yuan, Jiyang Ling and Chunsheng Li

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:82

    Content type: Original research

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  27. Multilevel uncertainty exists in the treatment of devastating brain injury and variation in end-of-life decision-making is a concern. Cognitive and emotional doubt linked to making challenging decisions have n...

    Authors: Annette Robertsen, Eirik Helseth, Jon Henrik Laake and Reidun Førde

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:81

    Content type: Original research

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  28. Pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia and tracheal intubation are life-saving interventions in trauma patients. However, there is evidence suggesting that the risks associated with both procedures outweigh the be...

    Authors: Philipp Schwaiger, Herbert Schöchl, Daniel Oberladstätter, Helmut Trimmel and Wolfgang G. Voelckel

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:80

    Content type: Original research

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  29. Little is known about the associations between the duration of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services (EMS) and outcomes among paediatric patients with out-of-hospital ca...

    Authors: Haruka Shida, Tasuku Matsuyama, Kosuke Kiyohara, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Takefumi Kishimori, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Chika Nishiyama, Daisuke Kobayashi, Satoe Okabayashi, Tomonari Shimamoto, Takashi Kawamura and Taku Iwami

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:79

    Content type: Original research

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  30. High demands are placed on the emergency medical services to handle rescue operations in challenging environments such as tunnels. In Oslo, Norway a specialised management function within the emergency medical...

    Authors: Johan Hylander, Britt-Inger Saveman, Ulf Björnstig and Lina Gyllencreutz

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:78

    Content type: Original research

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  31. Traumatic spinal cord injury is a relatively rare injury in Denmark but may result in serious neurological consequences. For decades, prehospital spinal stabilisation with a rigid cervical collar and a hard ba...

    Authors: Christian Maschmann, Elisabeth Jeppesen, Monika Afzali Rubin and Charlotte Barfod

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:77

    Content type: Guideline

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  32. Clinical reasoning is the process of gathering and understanding information conducted by clinicians in the emergency medical services (EMS) so as to make informed decisions. Research on clinical reasoning spa...

    Authors: Ulf Andersson, Hanna Maurin Söderholm, Birgitta Wireklint Sundström, Magnus Andersson Hagiwara and Henrik Andersson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:76

    Content type: Review

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  33. Workload is a major determinant of system performance and human well-being. This study aims to evaluate workload in prehospital emergency medicine on a single mission level and investigates influencing factors...

    Authors: Johannes Prottengeier, Johann Georg Keunecke, Christine Gall, Christian Eiche, Andreas Moritz and Torsten Birkholz

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:75

    Content type: Original research

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  34. The beneficial effect of epinephrine during resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been inconclusive, and potential harm has been suggested, particularly in trauma victims. Although no si...

    Authors: Ryo Yamamoto, Masaru Suzuki, Kei Hayashida, Jo Yoshizawa, Atsushi Sakurai, Nobuya Kitamura, Takashi Tagami, Taka-aki Nakada, Munekazu Takeda and Junichi Sasaki

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:74

    Content type: Original research

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  35. Dizziness is a frequent reason for visiting emergency departments (EDs). Differentiating stroke from other causes is challenging for physicians. The role of biomarkers has been poorly assessed. We evaluated wh...

    Authors: N. Deboevere, N. Marjanovic, M. Sierecki, M. Marchetti, M. Dubocage, E. Magimel, O. Mimoz and J. Guenezan

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:72

    Content type: Original research

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  36. In France, the pre-hospital field triage of trauma patients is currently based on the Vittel criteria algorithm. This algorithm was originally created in 2002 before the stratification of trauma centers and, a...

    Authors: Arnaud Cassignol, Julien Marmin, Jean Cotte, Mickael Cardinale, Julien Bordes, Vanessa Pauly, François Kerbaul, Didier Demory and Eric Meaudre

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:71

    Content type: Original research

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  37. Spinal immobilisation of blunt trauma victims with potential spinal cord injury is considered standard of care. The traditional management has, however, been increasingly questioned and concerns about harm hav...

    Authors: Camilla Ikast Ottosen, Jacob Steinmetz, Mo Haslund Larsen, Josefine S. Baekgaard and Lars S. Rasmussen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:70

    Content type: Original research

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  38. Alpine winter sports have become increasingly popular over recent decades, with a similar increase in accident incidence. This review provides an overview of the most recent literature concerning spinal injury...

    Authors: Sebastian Frederick Bigdon, Jan Gewiess, Sven Hoppe, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos, Lorin M. Benneker, Paul Gilbert Fairhurst and Christoph E. Albers

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:69

    Content type: Review

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  39. In-hospital renal replacement therapy (RRT) is widely used for the treatments of acute kidney injury (AKI) in crush injury (CI) victims. This study was designed to investigate whether preventive peritoneal dia...

    Authors: Xian-Long Zhou, Shao-Zhou Ni, Dan Xiong, Xue-Qi Cheng, Peng Xu and Yan Zhao

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:68

    Content type: Original research

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  40. Prehospital recognition of sepsis may inform case management by ambulance clinicians, as well as inform transport decisions. The objective of this study was to develop a prehospital sepsis screening tool for u...

    Authors: Michael A. Smyth, Daniel Gallacher, Peter K. Kimani, Mark Ragoo, Matthew Ward and Gavin D. Perkins

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:67

    Content type: Original research

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  41. Intravenous drug infusions in critically ill patients require accurate syringe infusion pumps (SIPs). This is particularly important during transportation of critically ill patients by helicopter emergency med...

    Authors: Marc Blancher, Maxence Repellin, Maxime Maignan, Cyrielle Clapé, Arnaud Perrin, José Labarère, Guillaume Debaty and Damien Viglino

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:65

    Content type: Original research

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  42. We present two cases in which elderly male recreational cyclists suffered from cervical fractures and coinciding injuries of the spinal cord that subsequently led to cardiac arrest.

    Authors: Anne Marie Kabell Nissen, Louise Gramstrup Nielsen, Søren Mikkelsen and Anne Craveiro Brøchner

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:64

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Geographical service areas are used as descriptive system indicators in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) related studies and reporting templates. The actual service area may differ significantly from administra...

    Authors: Jukka Pappinen, Anna Olkinuora and Päivi Laukkanen-Nevala

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:63

    Content type: Original research

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  44. Due to its favorable hemodynamic characteristics and by providing good intubation conditions etomidate is often used for induction of general anesthesia in trauma patients. It has been linked to temporary adre...

    Authors: Michael Gäßler, Matthias Ruppert, Rolf Lefering, Bertil Bouillon and Arasch Wafaisade

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:61

    Content type: Original research

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  45. The Swiss staging model for hypothermia uses clinical indicators to stage hypothermia and guide the management of hypothermic patients. The proposed temperature range for clinical stage 1 is < 35–32 °C, for st...

    Authors: M. Pasquier, P. N. Carron, A. Rodrigues, F. Dami, V. Frochaux, C. Sartori, T. Deslarzes and V. Rousson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2019 27:60

    Content type: Original research

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