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  1. Handling and initiating of treatment in a prehospital setting are complex processes that involve many treatment options and include several parts of the chain of survival. Capacity to adapt to unexpected chang...

    Authors: Elisabeth Jeppesen and Siri Wiig
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:104
  2. Variation in the incidence, survival rate and factors associated with survival after cardiac arrest in Europe is reported. Some studies have tried to fill the knowledge gap regarding the epidemiology of out-of...

    Authors: Ingvild B. M. Tjelmeland, Siobhan Masterson, Johan Herlitz, Jan Wnent, Leo Bossaert, Fernando Rosell-Ortiz, Kristin Alm-Kruse, Berthold Bein, Gisela Lilja and Jan-Thorsten Gräsner
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:103
  3. As an adjunct to physical examination, ultrasound is a potentially attractive option for diagnosing pneumothoraces in the pre-hospital and retrieval environment – and could confer a benefit to patient safety. ...

    Authors: James Ronaldson, Christopher E. J. Moultrie, Alasdair R. Corfield and Evelyn McElhinney
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:102
  4. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is a promising treatment for refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Most studies evaluating the effectiveness of ECPR include patients with an ini...

    Authors: Atsunori Tanimoto, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Maki Tanabe, Kanta Kitagawa, Ayumi Kawakami and Yuichi Hamabe
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:101
  5. Quality indicators (QI) for physician staffed emergency medical services (P-EMS) are necessary to improve service quality. Mortality can be considered the ultimate outcome QI. The process quality of care in P-...

    Authors: Helge Haugland, Anna Olkinuora, Leif Rognås, David Ohlén and Andreas Krüger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:100
  6. Maintaining effective oxygenation throughout the process of Pre-Hospital Emergency Anaesthesia (PHEA) is critical. There are multiple strategies available to clinicians to oxygenate patients both prior to and ...

    Authors: Adam J. Boulton, Amar Mashru and Richard Lyon
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:99
  7. In-hospital cardiac arrest is a major burden in health care. Although several track-and-trigger systems are used to predict cardiac arrest, they often have unsatisfactory performances. We hypothesized that a d...

    Authors: Joon-myoung Kwon, Kyung-Hee Kim, Ki-Hyun Jeon, Soo Youn Lee, Jinsik Park and Byung-Hee Oh
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:98
  8. Optimal management of out of hospital circulatory arrest (OHCA) remains challenging, in particular in patients who do not develop rapid return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary ...

    Authors: Jens Nee, Roland Koerner, Daniel Zickler, Tim Schroeder, Philipp Enghard, Lutz Nibbe, Dietrich Hasper, Robert Buder, Christoph Leithner, Christoph J. Ploner, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Christian Storm and Jan M. Kruse
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:96
  9. Trauma in the elderly (≥ 65 years) population is increasing. This study compares the performance of trauma scoring systems in predicting 30-day mortality among the traumatised elderly patients admitted to the ...

    Authors: Rebecca Egglestone, David Sparkes and Ahilanandan Dushianthan
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:95
  10. COVID-19, the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is challenging healthcare systems worldwide. Little is known about problems faced by emergency medical services—particularl...

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Jörg Braun, Fikri Abu-Zidan, Jörn Adler, Jürgen Knapp, Didier Dandrifosse, Désirée Braun, Urs Pietsch, Patrick Adamczuk, Leif Rognås and Roland Albrecht
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:94
  11. A big-data-driven and artificial intelligence (AI) with machine learning (ML) approach has never been integrated with the hospital information system (HIS) for predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in...

    Authors: Pei-I Zhang, Chien-Chin Hsu, Yuan Kao, Chia-Jung Chen, Ya-Wei Kuo, Shu-Lien Hsu, Tzu-Lan Liu, Hung-Jung Lin, Jhi-Joung Wang, Chung-Feng Liu and Chien-Cheng Huang
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:93
  12. Massive hemothorax secondary to thoracic spinal fractures is rare, and its clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis are unknown. We present two cases of thoracic spinal fracture-induced massive hemot...

    Authors: Kohei Ninomiya, Akira Kuriyama and Hayaki Uchino
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:92
  13. Positive outcomes from infant cardiac arrest depend on the effective delivery of resuscitation techniques, including good quality infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (iCPR) However, it has been established th...

    Authors: Debora Almeida, Carol Clark, Michael Jones, Phillip McConnell and Jonathan Williams
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:91
  14. Paediatric resuscitation is rare but potentially associated with maximal lifetime reduction. Notably, several nations experience high infant mortality rates even today. To improve clinical outcomes and promote...

    Authors: Sean S. Scholz, Rainer Borgstedt, Leoni C. Menzel, Sebastian Rehberg and Gerrit Jansen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:90
  15. The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) commonly intubates patients who require advanced airway support prior to takeoff. In-flight intubation (IFI) is avoided because it is considered difficult due to...

    Authors: Hiroki Maeyama, Hiromichi Naito, Francis X. Guyette, Takashi Yorifuji, Yuki Banshotani, Daisaku Matsui, Tetsuya Yumoto, Atsunori Nakao and Makoto Kobayashi
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:89
  16. To evaluate the associations between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at admission and 6-month mortality and outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) treated by hypothermic targeted temperature manageme...

    Authors: Junhaeng Lee, Joo Suk Oh, Jong Ho Zhu, Sungyoup Hong, Sang Hyun Park, Ji Hoon Kim, Hyungsoo Kim, Mingu Seo, Kiwook Kim, Doo Hyo Lee, Hyun Ho Jung, Jungtaek Park, Young Min Oh, Semin Choi and Kyoung Ho Choi
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:88
  17. Mild traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of arrivals to emergency department due to trauma in the 65-year-old population and over. Recent studies conducted in ED suggested a low intracranial lesion pre...

    Authors: Xavier Dubucs, Frederic Balen, Eric Schmidt, Mathieu Houles, Sandrine Charpentier, Charles-Henri Houze-Cerfon and Dominique Lauque
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:87
  18. Well-prepared humanitarian workers are now more necessary than ever. Essential to the preparation process are: clearly defined learning objectives, curricula tailored to the nuances of humanitarian settings, s...

    Authors: Alba Ripoll-Gallardo, Luca Ragazzoni, Ettore Mazzanti, Grazia Meneghetti, Jeffrey Michael Franc, Alessandro Costa and Francesco della Corte
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:86
  19. Drowning is the third leading cause of unintentional injury death worldwide, with the highest rates of fatality among young children. To decide how to treat these patients prehospitally could be challenging in...

    Authors: Steinar Einvik, Andreas Jorstad Kruger and Sven Erik Gisvold
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:85
  20. Emergency medical services regularly encounter severe burns. As standards of care are relatively well-established regarding their hospital management, prehospital care is comparatively poorly defined. The aim ...

    Authors: Ludovic Maudet, Mathieu Pasquier, Olivier Pantet, Roland Albrecht and Pierre-Nicolas Carron
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:84
  21. The measurement of lactate in emergency medical services has the potential for earlier detection of shock and can be performed with a point-of-care handheld device. Validation of a point-of-care handheld devic...

    Authors: Anette Raa, Geir Arne Sunde, Bjørn Bolann, Reidar Kvåle, Christopher Bjerkvig, Håkon S. Eliassen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen and Jon-Kenneth Heltne
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:83
  22. Elevated blood lactate levels were reported as useful predictors of clinical outcome and mortality in critically ill patients. To identify higher-risk patients, this investigation evaluated the relationship be...

    Authors: Michael Bernhard, Stephanie Döll, Andre Kramer, Lorenz Weidhase, Thomas Hartwig, Sirak Petros and André Gries
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:82
  23. In Sweden, the rapid emergency triage and treatment system (RETTS-A) is used in the pre-hospital setting. With RETTS-A, patients triaged to the lowest level could safely be referred to a lower level of care. T...

    Authors: Carl Magnusson, Johan Herlitz and Christer Axelsson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:81
  24. Rapid access to emergency medical communication centers (EMCCs) is pivotal to address potentially life-threatening conditions. Maintaining public access to EMCCs without delay is crucial in case of disease out...

    Authors: Y. Penverne, B. Leclere, J. Labady, F. Berthier, J. Jenvrin, F. Javaudin and E. Montassier
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:80
  25. Optimal prehospital management and treatment of patients with accidental hypothermia is a matter of frequent debate, with controversies usually revolving around the subject of rewarming. The rule of thumb in p...

    Authors: Sigurd Mydske and Øyvind Thomassen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:77

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:105

  26. Therapeutic controlled cooling is routinely practiced on neonates with core temperatures of 33–34 °C attained during cooling for birth related hypoxic-ischaemia encephalopathy (HIE). Rewarming after therapeuti...

    Authors: Peter Jones, Camille Joly and Benoît Vivien
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:76
  27. There is limited information on the predictive accuracy of commonly used predictors, such as lactate, pH or serum potassium for the survival among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with hypothermi...

    Authors: Yohei Okada, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Taro Irisawa, Kazuhisa Yoshiya, Tomoki Yamada, Koichi Hayakawa, Kazuo Noguchi, Tetsuro Nishimura, Takuya Ishibe, Yoshiki Yagi, Masafumi Kishimoto, Hiroshi Shintani, Yasuyuki Hayashi, Taku Sogabe, Takaya Morooka, Haruko Sakamoto…
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:75
  28. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with a non-specific chief complaints (NSC); i.e. decreased general condition, general malaise, sense of illness, or just being unable t...

    Authors: Robert Ivic, Lisa Kurland, Veronica Vicente, Maaret Castrén and Katarina Bohm
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:74
  29. Hospital incident command groups’ (HICG) performance may have a profound impact on hospital response to major incidents. Previous research has assessed hospital incident command group capacity as opposed to pe...

    Authors: Jason P. Murphy, Lisa Kurland, Monica Rådestad and Anders Rüter
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:73
  30. Gastric dilation is frequently observed in trauma patients. However, little is known about average gastric volumes comprising food, fluids and air. Although literature suggests a relevant risk of gastric insuf...

    Authors: Thomas Mitteregger, Philipp Schwaiger, Janett Kreutziger, Herbert Schöchl, Daniel Oberladstätter, Helmut Trimmel and Wolfgang G. Voelckel
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:72
  31. Over the past years, several emergency medical service providers have introduced mechanical chest compression devices (MCDs) in their protocols for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Especially in helicopter...

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, David Reiser, Volker Wenzel, Jürgen Knapp, Mario Tissi, Lorenz Theiler, Simon Rauch, Lorenz Meuli and Roland Albrecht
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:71
  32. Clinical decision-making skills of paramedics have been emphasized because of the growing complexity of emergency medicine nursing. A preliminary diagnosis made by a paramedic has an essential role in directin...

    Authors: Outi Koivulahti, Miretta Tommila and Elina Haavisto
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:70
  33. The number of patients calling for an ambulance increases. A considerable number of patients receive a non-specific diagnosis at discharge from the hospital, and this could imply less serious acute conditions,...

    Authors: Frederikke Vestergaard Nielsen, Mette Rønn Nielsen, Jesper Amstrup, Ida Lund Lorenzen, Torben A. Kløjgaard, Emil Færk, Henrik Bøggild and Erika Frischknecht Christensen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:69
  34. In emergency care, geriatric requirements and risks are often not taken sufficiently into account. In addition, there are neither evidence-based recommendations nor scientifically developed quality indicators ...

    Authors: Susanne Schuster, Katrin Singler, Stephen Lim, Mareen Machner, Klaus Döbler and Harald Dormann
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:68
  35. Exposure to extreme arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) following the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is common and may affe...

    Authors: Florian Ebner, Richard R. Riker, Zana Haxhija, David B. Seder, Teresa L. May, Susann Ullén, Pascal Stammet, Karen Hirsch, Sune Forsberg, Allison Dupont, Hans Friberg, John A. McPherson, Eldar Søreide, Josef Dankiewicz, Tobias Cronberg and Niklas Nielsen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:67
  36. There is a need for validated clinical risk scores to identify patients at risk of severe disease and to guide decision-making during the covid-19 pandemic. The National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) is widely...

    Authors: Marius Myrstad, Håkon Ihle-Hansen, Anders Aune Tveita, Elizabeth Lyster Andersen, Ståle Nygård, Arnljot Tveit and Trygve Berge
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:66
  37. Pelvic fractures, especially when unstable, may cause significant haemorrhage. The early application of a pelvic circumferential compression device (PCCD) in patients with suspected pelvic fracture has establi...

    Authors: Robin Pap, Rachel McKeown, Craig Lockwood, Matthew Stephenson and Paul Simpson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:65
  38. Few studies have investigated the patient compartment temperatures during ambulance missions or its relation to admission hypothermia. Still hypothermia is a known risk factor for increased mortality and morbi...

    Authors: Tuva Svendsen, Inger Lund-Kordahl and Knut Fredriksen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:64
  39. Acute abdominal pain can be a diagnostic challenge even for experienced surgeons. Delayed diagnosis can lead to higher morbidity, mortality and increased costs. While readmission rate has been used to evaluate...

    Authors: Leena Saaristo, Mika T. Ukkonen, Johanna M. Laukkarinen and Satu-Liisa K. Pauniaho
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:63
  40. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an increasingly used trauma resuscitation procedure, however, there are no reports of whether or not the survival of patients treated with R...

    Authors: Makoto Aoki, Toshikazu Abe, Shuichi Hagiwara, Daizoh Saitoh and Kiyohiro Oshima
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:62
  41. The human external cargo (HEC) operations conducted by Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) rarely take place at night, making it difficult for crew members to attain and maintain the level of expertis...

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Volker Lischke, Stephen J. M. Sollid, Stephan Prückner, Lorenz Theiler, Robert Greif and Roland Albrecht
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:61
  42. Studies examining the factors linked to survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have either aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of OHCA in different parts of the world, or focused o...

    Authors: Nooraldeen Al-Dury, Annica Ravn-Fischer, Jacob Hollenberg, Johan Israelsson, Per Nordberg, Anneli Strömsöe, Christer Axelsson, Johan Herlitz and Araz Rawshani
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:60
  43. Despite sepsis being a time critical condition with a high mortality, it is often not identified in a timely fashion. The aim of the current study was to create a screening tool based on bedside measurable var...

    Authors: Ulrika Margareta Wallgren, Jan Sjölin, Hans Järnbert-Pettersson and Lisa Kurland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:59
  44. Refractory cardiac arrest resistant to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (C-CPR) has a poor outcome. Although previous reports showed that extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) can impr...

    Authors: Fu-Yuan Siao, Chun-Wen Chiu, Chun-Chieh Chiu, Yu-Jun Chang, Ying-Chen Chen, Yao-Li Chen, Yung-Kun Hsieh, Chu-Chung Chou and Hsu-Hen Yen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:58
  45. Previous studies have provided initial data suggesting that small-bore (SB, ≤ 14Fr) chest tubes have the same efficacy as large-bore (LB, > 14 Fr) chest tubes for acute hemothorax (HTX), but data continue to b...

    Authors: A. Orlando, J. Cordero, M. M Carrick, A. H. Tanner II, K. Banton, R. Vogel, M. Lieser, D. Acuna and D. Bar-Or
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:56
  46. Over the last two decades, Emergency Department (ED) crowding has become an increasingly common occurrence worldwide. Crowding is a complex and challenging issue that affects EDs’ capacity to provide safe, tim...

    Authors: Elizabeth E. Austin, Brette Blakely, Catalin Tufanaru, Amanda Selwood, Jeffrey Braithwaite and Robyn Clay-Williams
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:55

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