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  1. Emerging evidence suggests that the reallocation of health care resources during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts health care system. This study describes the epidemiology and the outcome of major trau...

    Authors: Jean-Denis Moyer, Arthur James, Clément Gakuba, Mathieu Boutonnet, Emeline Angles, Emmanuel Rozenberg, Jean Bardon, Thomas Clavier, Vincent Legros, Marie Werner, Quentin Mathais, Véronique Ramonda, Pierre Le Minh, Yann Berthelot, Clélia Colas, Julien Pottecher…

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:51

    Content type: Original research

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  2. A primary task of the Norwegian helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is to provide advanced medical care to the critical ill and injured outside of hospitals. Where HEMS bases are located, directly inf...

    Authors: Caroline J. Jagtenberg, Maaike A. J. Vollebergh, Oddvar Uleberg and Jo Røislien

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:50

    Content type: Original research

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  3. Tracheal intubation remains the gold standard of airway management in emergency medicine and maximizing safety, intubation success, and especially first-pass intubation success (FPS) in these situations is imp...

    Authors: Jürgen Knapp, Bettina Eberle, Michael Bernhard, Lorenz Theiler, Urs Pietsch and Roland Albrecht

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:49

    Content type: Original research

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  4. Chloroquine use has increased worldwide recently in the setting of experimental treatment for the novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19). Nevertheless, in case of chloroquine intoxication, it can be life threate...

    Authors: Thomas Ferry, Vivianne Amiet, Julia Natterer, Marie-Hélène Perez, Raymond Pfister, Sébastien Colombier and David Longchamp

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:48

    Content type: Case report

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  5. The incidence of cerebral fat embolism (CFE) ranges from 0.9–11%, with a mean mortality rate of around 10%. Although no univocal explanation has been identified for the resulting fat embolism syndrome (FES), t...

    Authors: Luigi Vetrugno, Elena Bignami, Cristian Deana, Flavio Bassi, Maria Vargas, Maria Orsaria, Daniele Bagatto, Cristina Intermite, Francesco Meroi, Francesco Saglietti, Marco Sartori, Daniele Orso, Massimo Robiony and Tiziana Bove

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:47

    Content type: Review

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  6. Spinal stabilisation is recommended for prehospital trauma treatment. In Germany, vacuum mattresses are traditionally used for spinal stabilisation, whereas in anglo-american countries, long spine boards are p...

    Authors: Roessler MS, M Riffelmann, N Kunze-Szikszay, M Lier, O Schmid, H Haus, S Schneider and Heuer JF

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:46

    Content type: Original research

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  7. Medical dispatching is a highly complex procedure and has an impact upon patient outcome. It includes call-taking and triage, prioritization of resources and the provision of guidance and instructions to calle...

    Authors: Thea Palsgaard Møller, Hejdi Gamst Jensen, Søren Viereck, Freddy Lippert and Doris Østergaaard

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:45

    Content type: Original research

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  8. This study is aimed to investigate the association of intraosseous (IO) versus intravenous (IV) route during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

    Authors: Yu-Lin Hsieh, Meng-Che Wu, Jon Wolfshohl, James d’Etienne, Chien-Hua Huang, Tsung-Chien Lu, Edward Pei-Chuan Huang, Eric H. Chou, Chih-Hung Wang and Wen-Jone Chen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:44

    Content type: Original research

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  9. Falls in older Emergency Department (ED) patients may indicate underlying frailty. Geriatric follow-up might help improve outcomes in addition to managing the direct cause and consequence of the fall. We aimed...

    Authors: Laura C. Blomaard, Simon P. Mooijaart, Leonie J. van Meer, Julia Leander, Jacinta A. Lucke, Jelle de Gelder, Sander Anten, Jacobijn Gussekloo and Bas de Groot

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:43

    Content type: Original research

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  10. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been demonstrated as a useful indicator to predict return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (...

    Authors: Jumpei Tsukuda, Shigeki Fujitani, Mahbubur Rahman, Kenichiro Morisawa, Takeshi Kawaguchi and Yasuhiko Taira

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:42

    Content type: Original research

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  11. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the Netherlands, the demand for intensive care beds exceeded availability within days. Initially, patients were redistributed regionally by ground tra...

    Authors: Ed J. Spoelder, Marijn C. T. Tacken, Geert-Jan van Geffen and Cor Slagt

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:41

    Content type: Original research

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  12. In a prehospital setting, the severity of respiratory symptoms in patients calling for an ambulance differ. The initial evaluation, diagnosing, and thereby management can be challenging because respiratory sym...

    Authors: Pia Iben Pietersen, Søren Mikkelsen, Annmarie T. Lassen, Simon Helmerik, Gitte Jørgensen, Giti Nadim, Helle Marie Christensen, Daniel Wittrock and Christian B. Laursen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:40

    Content type: Original research

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  13. The effect of mechanical CPR is diversely described in the literature. Different mechanical CPR devices are available. The corpuls cpr is a new generation of piston-driven devices and was launched in 2015. The...

    Authors: S. Seewald, S. Dopfer, J. Wnent, B. Jakisch, M. Heller, R. Lefering and JT Gräsner

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:39

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Aggressive fluid management and other external factors may lead to hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution (defined as Lethal Triad, LT) contributing to a trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) that worsens patients...

    Authors: Julia K. Böhm, Nadine Schäfer, Marc Maegele, Birgit Stümpges, Ursula Bauerfeind and Michael Caspers

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:38

    Content type: Original research

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  15. Transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) indices of myocardial function among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been related to neurological outcome; however, results are inconsistent. We hy...

    Authors: Thomas Hvid Jensen, Peter Juhl-Olsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj Nielsen, Johan Heiberg, Christophe Henri Valdemar Duez, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen, Christian Alcaraz Frederiksen, Hans Kirkegaard and Anders Morten Grejs

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:37

    Content type: Original research

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  16. Pain is one of the major symptoms complained about by patients in the prehospital setting, especially in the case of trauma. When there is mountainous topography, as in Switzerland, there may be a time delay b...

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Yoël Berger, David Schurter, Lorenz Theiler, Volker Wenzel, Lorenz Meuli, Andreas Grünenfelder and Roland Albrecht

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:36

    Content type: Original research

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  17. ABGs are performed in acute conditions as the reference method for assessing the acid-base status of blood. Hyperventilation and breath-holding are common ventilatory changes that occur around the time of samp...

    Authors: Lisha Shastri, Søren Kjærgaard, Peter S. Thyrrestrup, Stephen E. Rees and Lars P. Thomsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:35

    Content type: Original research

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  18. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Veronika Hofer, Jochen Hinkelbein, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Michael D. Christian, Thomas Wurmb, Michael Bernhard and Björn Hossfeld

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:34

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:112

  19. Early pre-hospital identification of critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. To identify critically ill non-traumatic and non-cardiac arrest patients, a pre-hospital risk stratification tool w...

    Authors: Lars I. Veldhuis, Markus W. Hollmann, Fabian O. Kooij and Milan L. Ridderikhof

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:32

    Content type: Original research

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  20. Some emergency medical systems (EMS) use a dispatch centre where nurses or paramedics assess emergency calls and dispatch ambulances. Paramedics may also provide the first tier of care “in the field”, with the...

    Authors: Victor Nathan Chappuis, Hélène Deham, Philippe Cottet, Birgit Andrea Gartner, François Pierre Sarasin, Marc Niquille, Laurent Suppan and Robert Larribau

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:31

    Content type: Original research

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  21. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates w...

    Authors: Kevin Roedl, Gerold Söffker, Dominik Fischer, Jakob Müller, Dirk Westermann, Malte Issleib, Stefan Kluge and Dominik Jarczak

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:30

    Content type: Original research

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  22. Over the past decade Smartphone-based activation (SBA) of Community First Responders (CFR) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) has gained much attention and popularity throughout Europe. Various programm...

    Authors: Camilla Metelmann, Bibiana Metelmann, Dorothea Kohnen, Peter Brinkrolf, Linn Andelius, Bernd W. Böttiger, Roman Burkart, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Mario Krammel, Tore Marks, Michael P. Müller, Stefan Prasse, Remy Stieglis, Bernd Strickmann and Karl Christian Thies

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:29

    Content type: Original research

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  23. Sufficient analgesia is an obligation, but oligoanalgesia (NRS> 3) is frequently observed prehospitally. Potent analgesics may cause severe adverse events. Thus, analgesia in the helicopter emergency medical s...

    Authors: Christopher Rugg, Simon Woyke, Wolfgang Voelckel, Peter Paal and Mathias Ströhle

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:28

    Content type: Original research

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  24. Virtual reality is an innovative technology for medical education associated with high empirical realism.

    Authors: Malte Issleib, Alina Kromer, Hans O. Pinnschmidt, Christoph Süss-Havemann and Jens C. Kubitz

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:27

    Content type: Original research

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  25. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and shock index (SI) are accurate indicators of hemodynamic instability and the need for transfusion in trauma patients. We aimed to determine whether the utility and cutoff point...

    Authors: Se Jin Park, Mi Jin Lee, Changho Kim, Haewon Jung, Seong Hun Kim, Wooyoung Nho, Kang Suk Seo, Jungbae Park, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jae Yun Ahn, Sungbae Moon, Jae Wan Cho and Shin-ah Son

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:26

    Content type: Original research

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  26. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique have been used widely for research priority setting in health care. Within pre-hospital emergency medicine, such approaches have helped to establish national and ...

    Authors: Sarah McLachlan and Hilary Bungay

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:25

    Content type: Original research

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  27. The effects of the body mass index (BMI) on outcomes of patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest are controversial. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between the BMI and the favourable...

    Authors: Heekyung Lee, Jaehoon Oh, Hyunggoo Kang, Tae Ho Lim, Byuk Sung Ko, Hyuk Joong Choi, Seung Min Park, You Hwan Jo, Jong Suk Lee, Yoo Seok Park, Young-Hoon Yoon, Su Jin Kim and Young-Gi Min

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:24

    Content type: Original research

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  28. One factor leading to the high mortality rate seen in sepsis is the subtle, dynamic nature of the disease, which can lead to delayed detection and under-resuscitation. This study investigated whether serial he...

    Authors: Steve B. Chukwulebe, David F. Gaieski, Abhishek Bhardwaj, Lakeisha Mulugeta-Gordon, Frances S. Shofer and Anthony J. Dean

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:23

    Content type: Original research

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  29. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms in trauma patients who have been recruited from the resuscitation room. Further, we wan...

    Authors: Iris Reiner, Manfred E. Beutel, Philipp Winter, Pol M. Rommens and Sebastian Kuhn

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:22

    Content type: Original research

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  30. Ambulance services play an important role in the healthcare system when it comes to handling accidents or acute illnesses outside of hospitals. At the time of patient handover from emergency medical technician...

    Authors: Sveinbjörn Dúason, Björn Gunnarsson and Margrét Hrönn Svavarsdóttir

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:21

    Content type: Original research

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  31. The risk of COVID-19 transmission to healthcare professionals is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. The wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) presents a number of potential challenges to r...

    Authors: James Raitt, Ben Watts, Jaspreet Rayet, Mark Hodkinson and David Zideman

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:20

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Futile resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 era can lead to risk of disease transmission and unnecessary transport. Various existing basic or a...

    Authors: Haewon Jung, Mi Jin Lee, Jae Wan Cho, Sang Hun Lee, Suk Hee Lee, You Ho Mun, Han-sol Chung, Yang Hun Kim, Gyun Moo Kim, Sin-youl Park, Jae Cheon Jeon and Changho Kim

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:19

    Content type: Original research

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  33. The Scandinavian Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System-pediatric (RETTS-p) is a reliable triage system that includes both assessment of vital parameters and a systematic approach to history and symptoms....

    Authors: Siv Steinsmo Ødegård, Thuy Tran, Lars E. Næss-Pleym, Kari Risnes and Henrik Døllner

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:18

    Content type: Original research

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  34. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a common cause of major trauma and death. Following an MVC, up to 40% of patients will be trapped in their vehicle. Extrication methods are focused on the prevention of seco...

    Authors: Tim Nutbeam, Rob Fenwick, Jason Smith, Omar Bouamra, Lee Wallis and Willem Stassen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:17

    Content type: Original research

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  35. Despite critical hypoxemia, Covid-19 patients may present without proportional signs of respiratory distress. We report three patients with critical respiratory failure due to Covid-19, in which all presented ...

    Authors: Jens Otto Mæhlen, Roger Mikalsen, Hans Julius Heimdal, Marius Rehn, Jostein S. Hagemo and William Ottestad

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:16

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Management of patients with coma of unknown etiology (CUE) is a major challenge in most emergency departments (EDs). CUE is associated with a high mortality and a wide variety of pathologies that require diffe...

    Authors: Maximilian Lutz, Martin Möckel, Tobias Lindner, Christoph J. Ploner, Mischa Braun and Wolf Ulrich Schmidt

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:15

    Content type: Original research

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  37. Multitasking is a key skill for emergency department (ED) providers. Yet, potentially beneficial or debilitating effects for provider functioning and cognition are underexplored. We therefore aimed to investig...

    Authors: Tobias Augenstein, Anna Schneider, Markus Wehler and Matthias Weigl

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:14

    Content type: Original research

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  38. The challenges encountered in emergency medical services (EMS) contacts with children are likely most pronounced in infants, but little is known about their out-of-hospital care. Our primary aim was to describ...

    Authors: Jelena Oulasvirta, Heini Harve-Rytsälä, Mitja Lääperi, Markku Kuisma and Heli Salmi

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:13

    Content type: Original research

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  39. Unnecessary whole-body computed tomography (CT) may lead to excess radiation exposure. Serum D-dimer levels have been reported to correlate with injury severity. We examined the predictive value of serum D-dim...

    Authors: Rakuhei Nakama, Ryo Yamamoto, Yoshimitsu Izawa, Keiichi Tanimura and Takashi Mato

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:12

    Content type: Original research

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  40. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the number of patients reported to a hospital with injuries from consumer fireworks in the months December–January in the past 10 years, and to describe the associ...

    Authors: Daan T. Van Yperen, Esther M. M. Van Lieshout, J. Niels Dijkshoorn, Cornelis H. Van der Vlies and Michael H. J. Verhofstad

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:11

    Content type: Original research

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  41. Efficient and timely airway management is universally recognised as a priority for major trauma patients, a proportion of whom require emergency intubation in the pre-hospital setting. Adverse events occur mor...

    Authors: Kate Crewdson, Ainsley Heywoth, Marius Rehn, Samy Sadek and David Lockey

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:10

    Content type: Original research

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  42. Although the results of previous studies suggested the effectiveness of physician-led prehospital trauma management, it has been uncertain because of the limited number of high-quality studies. Furthermore, th...

    Authors: Akira Endo, Mitsuaki Kojima, Saya Uchiyama, Atsushi Shiraishi and Yasuhiro Otomo

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:9

    Content type: Original research

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  43. In this review, we assess the state of Resuscitative Endovascular Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) today with respect to out-of-hospital (OOH) vs. inhospital (H) use in blunt and penetrating trauma, as well as d...

    Authors: Marianne A. Thrailkill, Kevin H. Gladin, Catherine R. Thorpe, Teryn R. Roberts, Jae H. Choi, Kevin K. Chung, Corina N. Necsoiu, Todd E. Rasmussen, Leopoldo C. Cancio and Andriy I. Batchinsky

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:8

    Content type: Review

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  44. The aim of this study was to identify key indicator symptoms and patient factors associated with correct out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) dispatch allocation. In previous studies, from 3% to 62% of OHCAs ...

    Authors: Caroline L. Watkins, Stephanie P. Jones, Margaret A. Hurley, Valerio Benedetto, Christopher I. Price, Christopher J. Sutton, Tom Quinn, Munirah Bangee, Brigit Chesworth, Colette Miller, Dawn Doran, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena and Josephine M. E. Gibson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:7

    Content type: Original research

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  45. Tranexamic acid reduces surgical blood loss and reduces deaths from bleeding in trauma patients. Tranexamic acid must be given urgently, preferably by paramedics at the scene of the injury or in the ambulance....

    Authors: Francois-Xavier Ageron, Timothy J. Coats, Vincent Darioli and Ian Roberts

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:6

    Content type: Original research

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  46. Several observational studies have shown that hospital-level intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring utilization varies considerably in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the relationsh...

    Authors: Tomoya Okazaki, Kenya Kawakita and Yasuhiro Kuroda

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:5

    Content type: Original research

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  47. The role of ambulance services is shifting, due in part to more intermediate, non-urgent patients who do not require direct emergency department conveyance, yet who cannot be safely left at home alone. Evidenc...

    Authors: Joanna M. Blodgett, Duncan J. Robertson, Elspeth Pennington, David Ratcliffe and Kenneth Rockwood

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:4

    Content type: Review

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  48. MiRNA-155 and miRNA-145 have been demonstrated to function as a key regulator in the development of the cardiovascular system. Recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated the cardioprotective role ...

    Authors: Yong He, Guoxing Wang, Chuang Li, Yuxing Wang and Qian Zhang

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:2

    Content type: Original research

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  49. Trauma is a significant cause of death and impairment. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) differentiates the severity of trauma and is the basis for different trauma scores and prediction models. While the maj...

    Authors: O. Kamp, O. Jansen, R. Lefering, M. Aach, C. Waydhas, M. Dudda, T. A. Schildhauer and U. Hamsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:1

    Content type: Original research

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