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  1. Citizen responder programmes dispatch volunteer citizens to initiate resuscitation in nearby out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) before the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival. Little is known about th...

    Authors: Anne-Sofie Linde Jellestad, Fredrik Folke, Rune Molin, Rasmus Meyer Lyngby, Carolina Malta Hansen and Linn Andelius
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:110
  2. Authors: Iscander M. Maissan, Boris Vlottes, Sanne Hoeks, Jan Bosch, Robert Jan Stolker and Dennis den Hartog
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:109

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:87

  3. Motor vehicle collisions account for 1.3 million deaths and 50 million serious injuries worldwide each year. However, the majority of people involved in such incidents are uninjured or have injuries which do n...

    Authors: Tim Nutbeam, Rob Fenwick, Barbara May, Willem Stassen, Jason E. Smith, Lee Wallis, Mike Dayson and James Shippen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:108
  4. Calls to emergency medical lines are an essential component in the chain of survival. Operators make critical decisions based on information they elicit from callers. Although smooth cooperation is necessary, ...

    Authors: Jennifer Gerwing, Jon Erik Steen-Hansen, Trond Mjaaland, Bård Fossli Jensen, Olav Eielsen, Owen Matthew Truscott Thomas and Pål Gulbrandsen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:107
  5. There exists a therapeutic conflict between haemorrhage control and prevention of thromboembolic events following polytrauma and complications are not uncommon. Such opposing therapies can result in unexpected...

    Authors: Mathew Brun, Shane Brun, David Pearson and Martin Wullschleger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:106
  6. Organ donation after brain death is the standard practice in many countries. Rates are low globally. This study explores the potential national number of candidates for uncontrolled donations after cardiac dea...

    Authors: Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Timothy Xin Zhong Tan, Ejaz Latiff, Nur Shahidah, Yih Yng Ng, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Shir Lynn Lim, Pin Pin Pek, Han Nee Gan, Desmond Renhao Mao, Michael Yih Chong Chia, Si Oon Cheah, Lai Peng Tham and Marcus Eng Hock Ong
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:105
  7. In the ‘can’t intubate can’t oxygenate’ scenario, techniques to achieve front of neck access to the airway have been described in the literature but there is a lack of guidance on the optimal method for securi...

    Authors: Christopher J Groombridge, Amit Maini, Joseph Mathew, Yesul Kim, Mark Fitzgerald, De Villiers Smit and Gerard O’Reilly
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:104
  8. Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outc...

    Authors: Ester Holmström, Ilmar Efendijev, Rahul Raj, Pirkka T. Pekkarinen, Erik Litonius and Markus B. Skrifvars
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:103
  9. Previous studies have stated that hyperventilation often occurs in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mainly due to excessive ventilation frequencies, especially when a manual valve bag is used. Transport ven...

    Authors: Simon Orlob, Johannes Wittig, Christoph Hobisch, Daniel Auinger, Gabriel Honnef, Tobias Fellinger, Robin Ristl, Otmar Schindler, Philipp Metnitz, Georg Feigl and Gerhard Prause
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:102
  10. Blood alcohol level (BAL) has previously been considered as a factor influencing the outcome of injured patients. Despite the well-known positive correlation between alcohol-influenced traffic participation an...

    Authors: Thomas Brockamp, Andreas Böhmer, Rolf Lefering, Bertil Bouillon, Arasch Wafaisade, Manuel Mutschler, Paola Kappel and Matthias Fröhlich
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:101
  11. Despite a widely acknowledged increase in older people presenting with traumatic injury in western populations there remains a lack of research into the optimal prehospital management of this vulnerable patien...

    Authors: Michael Eichinger, Henry Douglas Pow Robb, Cosmo Scurr, Harriet Tucker, Stefan Heschl and George Peck
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:100
  12. In chemical incidents, infrequent but potentially disastrous, the World Health Organization calls for inter-organizational coordination of actors involved. Multi-organizational studies of chemical response cap...

    Authors: Anton Westman, Britt-Inger Saveman, Ulf Björnstig, Johan Hylander and Lina Gyllencreutz
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:99
  13. Self-Inflating Resuscitation Bags (SIRB) are common and essential tools in airway management and ventilation. They are often used in resuscitation and emergency anaesthesia outside the operating theatre. There...

    Authors: Sven Grauman, Joakim Johansson and Thomas Drevhammar
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:98
  14. In acute ischemic stroke, conjugated eye deviation (CED) is an evident sign of cortical ischemia and large vessel occlusion (LVO). We aimed to determine if an emergency dispatcher can recognise LVO stroke duri...

    Authors: Pauli E. T. Vuorinen, Jyrki P. J. Ollikainen, Pasi A. Ketola, Riikka-Liisa K. Vuorinen, Piritta A. Setälä and Sanna E. Hoppu
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:97
  15. As any traumatic event, avalanches could trigger psychological disorders on survivors. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among avalanche survivors and to evaluat...

    Authors: Charlotte Léonard, Anaëlle Charriau-Perret, Guillaume Debaty, Loïc Belle, Cécile Ricard, Caroline Sanchez, Pierre-Marie Dupré, Gregory Panoff, Thierry Bougerol, Damien Viglino and Marc Blancher
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:96
  16. There is a lack of knowledge how patients with COVID-19 disease differ from patients with similar signs or symptoms (but who will have a diagnosis other than COVID-19) in the prehospital setting. The aim of th...

    Authors: Markku Kuisma, Heini Harve-Rytsälä, Jussi Pirneskoski, James Boyd, Mitja Lääperi, Ari Salo and Tuukka Puolakka
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:95
  17. Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. Early outcome prediction in patients with TBI require reliable data input and stable prognostic models. The aim of this ...

    Authors: Djino Khaki, Virpi Hietanen, Alba Corell, Helena Odenstedt Hergès and Johan Ljungqvist
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:94
  18. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is the first-line nonsurgical treatment for severe blunt liver injury in patients, whereas operative management (OM) is recommended for hemodynamically unstable patien...

    Authors: Satoshi Tamura, Takaaki Maruhashi, Fumie Kashimi, Yutaro Kurihara, Tomonari Masuda, Tasuku Hanajima, Yuichi Kataoka and Yasushi Asari
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:66

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:93

  19. We aimed to investigate the medical characteristics of helicopter hoist operations (HHO) in HEMS missions.

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Jürgen Knapp, Michael Mann, Lorenz Meuli, Volker Lischke, Mario Tissi, Stephen Sollid, Simon Rauch, Volker Wenzel, Stefan Becker and Roland Albrecht
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:92
  20. Hypothermia significantly affects mortality and morbidity of newborns. Literature about severe accidental hypothermia in neonates is limited. We report a case of a neonate suffering from severe accidental hypo...

    Authors: Astrid Kuonen, Thomas Riva and Gabor Erdoes
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:91
  21. Temporary circulatory support is a bridge between acute circulatory failure and definitive treatment or recovery. Currently, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is considered to be one o...

    Authors: Hao Zhou, Yi Zhu, Zhongman Zhang, Jinru Lv, Wei Li, Deliang Hu, Xufeng Chen and Yong Mei
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:90
  22. Triage and triage related work has been performed in Swedish Emergency Departments (EDs) since the mid-1990s. According to two national surveys from 2005 to 2011, triage was carried out with different triage s...

    Authors: Sara C. Wireklint, Carina Elmqvist and Katarina E. Göransson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:89
  23. The European resuscitation council have highlighted emergency medical dispatch centres as an important key player for early recognition of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) and in providing dispatcher assi...

    Authors: Camilla Hardeland, Andreas Claesson, Marieke T. Blom, Stig Nikolaj Fasmer Blomberg, Fredrik Folke, Jacob Hollenberg, Jo Kramer-Johansen, Freddy Lippert, Anette Nord, Anne Mette Nygaard, Theresa Mariero Olasveengen, Mattias Ringh, Leif Svensson and Thea Palsgaard Møller
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:88
  24. Ambulance drivers in the Netherlands are trained to drive as fluent as possible when transporting a head injured patient to the hospital. Acceleration and deceleration have the potential to create pressure cha...

    Authors: Iscander M. Maissan, Boris Vlottes, Sanne Hoeks, Jan Bosch, Robert Jan Stolker and Dennis den Hartog
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:87

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:109

  25. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is recognized as first line ventilatory support for the management of acute pulmonary edema (APE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. We aimed to study...

    Authors: Adeline Dunand, Nicolas Beysard, Ludovic Maudet, Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Fabrice Dami, Lise Piquilloud, David Caillet-Bois and Mathieu Pasquier
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:85
  26. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mountain environment is challenging. Continuous chest compressions during transport or hoist rescue are almost impossible without mechanical chest compression devices. Current ...

    Authors: Egger Alexander, Tscherny Katharina, Fuhrmann Verena, Grafeneder Jürgen, Niederer Maximilian, Kienbacher Calvin, Schachner Andreas, Schreiber Wolfgang, Herkner Harald and Roth Dominik
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:84
  27. Placing a peripheral vein catheter can be challenging due to several factors, but using ultrasound as guidance increases the success rate. The purpose of this review is to investigate the knowledge already exi...

    Authors: Rasmus Jørgensen, Christian B. Laursen, Lars Konge and Pia Iben Pietersen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:83
  28. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is dependent on early recognition, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. The purpose of CPR is to maintain some blood flow unt...

    Authors: Ingvild B. M. Tjelmeland, Jan Wnent, Siobhan Masterson, Jo Kramer-Johansen and Jan-Thorsten Gräsner
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:82
  29. Thoracic trauma is commonplace and accounts for 50–70% of the injuries found in severe trauma. Little information is available in the literature as to timing of endotracheal intubation. The main objective of t...

    Authors: Adrien Cornillon, Juliette Balbo, Julien Coffinet, Thierry Floch, Mathieu Bard, Guillaume Giordano-Orsini, Jean-Marc Malinovsky, Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Daphne Michelet and Vincent Legros
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:81
  30. The management of penetrating wounds is a rare challenge for trauma surgeons in Germany and Central Europe as a result of the low incidence of this type of trauma. In Germany, penetrating injuries are reported...

    Authors: D Bieler, E Kollig, L Hackenberg, JH Rathjen, R Lefering and A Franke
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:80
  31. Mechanical chest compression devices are accepted alternatives for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) under specific circumstances. Current devices lack prospective and comparative data on their specific card...

    Authors: Robert Ruemmler, Jakob Stein, Bastian Duenges, Miriam Renz and Erik Kristoffer Hartmann
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:79
  32. During the COVID-19 pandemic, as the number of available Intensive Care beds in France did not meet the needs, it appeared necessary to transfer a large number of patients from the most affected areas to the l...

    Authors: Thierry Lentz, Charles Groizard, Abel Colomes, Anna Ozguler, Michel Baer and Thomas Loeb
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:78
  33. The Nordic countries have differed in their approach as to how much priority for COVID19 vaccine access should be given to health care workers. Two countries decided not to give health care workers highest pri...

    Authors: Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir and Bo Enemark Madsen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:77
  34. Bystander-initiated resuscitation is essential for surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Smartphone apps can provide real-time guidance for medical laypersons in these situations. Are these apps a benefici...

    Authors: Camilla Metelmann, Bibiana Metelmann, Louisa Schuffert, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Marcus Vollmer and Peter Brinkrolf
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:76
  35. The biomarker serum S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is used in in-hospital triage of adults with mild traumatic brain injury to rule out intracranial lesions. The biomarker glial fibrillary acidic prote...

    Authors: Sophie-Charlott Seidenfaden, Julie Linding Kjerulff, Niels Juul, Hans Kirkegaard, Mette Fogh Møller, Anna-Marie Bloch Münster and Morten Thingemann Bøtker
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:75
  36. When working in complex environments with critically ill patients, team performance is influenced by situation awareness in teams. Moreover, improved situation awareness in the teams will probably improve team...

    Authors: Karin Jonsson, Christine Brulin, Maria Härgestam, Marie Lindkvist and Magnus Hultin
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:73
  37. There have been major developments in healthcare services as well as changes in demographics in recent years, and this has, among other things, led to increased demand for ambulance services. In general, this ...

    Authors: Sveinbjörn Dúason, Christoffer Ericsson, Hrafnhildur Lilja Jónsdóttir, Jeanette Viggen Andersen and Thomas Lynge Andersen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:72
  38. A threshold Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16 is common in classifying major trauma (MT), although the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) has been extensively revised over time. The aim of this study was to determi...

    Authors: Jan C. Van Ditshuizen, Charlie A. Sewalt, Cameron S. Palmer, Esther M. M. Van Lieshout, Michiel H. J. Verhofstad and Dennis Den Hartog
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:71
  39. Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) increases neurologically intact survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) according to several studies. This systematic review summarizes neur...

    Authors: Kristine Elisabeth Eberhard, Gitte Linderoth, Mads Christian Tofte Gregers, Freddy Lippert and Fredrik Folke
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:70
  40. Assessing and managing the risk of clinical deterioration is a cornerstone of emergency care, commencing at triage and continuing throughout the emergency department (ED) care. The aim of this scoping review w...

    Authors: Julie Considine, Margaret Fry, Kate Curtis and Ramon Z. Shaban
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:69
  41. Coagulopathy in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. However, few reports focus on pediatric TBI-associated coagulopathy.

    Authors: Cheng-yan You, Si-wei Lu, Yue-qiang Fu and Feng Xu
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:67
  42. Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with about 5.8 million deaths globally and the leading cause of death in those aged 45 and younger. The pre-hospital phase of traumatic injury is ...

    Authors: Matilda K. Björklund, Moira Cruickshank, Robbie A. Lendrum and Katie Gillies
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:65
  43. Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) was introduced to minimise the risk of aspiration of gastric contents during emergency tracheal intubation. It consisted of induction with the use of thiopentone and suxamethoniu...

    Authors: Pascale Avery, Sarah Morton, James Raitt, Hans Morten Lossius and David Lockey
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:64
  44. Retrospective trauma scores are often used to categorise trauma, however, they have little utility in the prehospital or hyper-acute setting and do not define major trauma to non-specialists. This study employ...

    Authors: Lee Thompson, Michael Hill, Fiona Lecky and Gary Shaw
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:63
  45. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) respond to serious trauma and medical emergencies. Geographical disparity and the regionalisation of trauma systems can complicate accurate HEMS dispatch. We sought...

    Authors: J. E. Griggs, J. W. Barrett, E. ter Avest, R. de Coverly, M. Nelson, J. Williams and R. M. Lyon
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:62
  46. Hypotension is associated with worse outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and maintaining a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥110 mmHg is recommended. The aim of this study was to assess the inci...

    Authors: Simon Rauch, Matilde Marzolo, Tomas Dal Cappello, Mathias Ströhle, Peter Mair, Urs Pietsch, Hermann Brugger and Giacomo Strapazzon
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:61

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