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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Helicopter emergency medical services use of thoracic point of care ultrasound for pneumothorax: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Population Index test (thoracic POCUS) Reference test(s) Funding sources
Authors Design Sample size (no. of images evaluated) Setting Presentation Target condition Operator(s) Device Method   
Included in meta-analysis           
Quick et al. [3] Prospective observational 149 In-flight Trauma (n = 136) and medical (n = 13) Pneumothorax Flight nurses and paramedics Sonosite M-Turbo Not specified CT, X-ray, or clinical signs None declared
Ronaldson et al. [5] Observational 19 Ambulance (n = 5), helicopter (n = 3), roadside (n = 3), fixed wing (n = 1) Trauma (50%) and medical (50%) Pneumothorax Flight nurses and paramedics GE v-scan dual probe 2nd intercostal space Expert review of original images Not applicable
Yates et al. [6] Prospective observational 190 On scene (35%), in-flight (51%), both (14%) Trauma Pneumothorax Flight nurses and paramedics Sonosite M-Turbo eFAST CT, or trauma surgeon’s operative report None declared
Oliver et al. [1] Retrospective observational 662 On scene, in ambulance, or in helicopter Trauma Pneumothorax Physicians (66%)/ paramedics (34%) GE v-scan dual probe and Sonosite i-Look Not specified CT None declared
Press et al. [2] Prospective observational 489 On scene and in-flight Trauma Pneumothorax Flight nurses and paramedics Sonosite M-Turbo eFAST CT, X-ray, or clinical signs Sonosite, Inc
Ketelaars et al. [22] Retrospective observational 59 On scene and in-flight Trauma and cardiac arrest Pneumothorax Physicians Sonosite MicroMaxx PREP (comparable to eFAST) CT None declared
Roline et al. [4] Prospective observational 81 In-flight Medical and trauma Pneumothorax Not specified Sonosite MicroMaxx 2nd intercostal space Expert review of original images None declared
Lyon et al. [24] Prospective observational 64 In-flight (using a model to simulate plural interface) Simulated Pneumothorax Not specified GE Logique M-mode imaging Expert review of original images None declared
Not included in meta-analysis           
Scharonow et al. [25] Prospective observational 71 On scene Medical (68%) and trauma (31.3%) Pneumothorax Physicians Sonosite MicroMaxx Pre-hospital lung ultrasound (PLUS) exanimation CT, ultrasound (ED) or X-ray No funding received
Neesse et al. [23] Prospective observational 56 On scene Medical Pneumothorax Physicians Sonosite MicroMaxx Anterior intercostal spaces two-to-four views CT, ultrasound (ED) or X-ray None declared
Khalil et al. [26] RCT 60 Pre-hospital simulation Trauma Tension pneumothorax Paramedics SonoSim Not specified Pre-programmed simulated presentation of pneumothorax None declared
Snaith et al. [33] Prospective observational 36 ED versus stationary ambulance versus moving ambulance Simulation—healthy subjects Pneumothorax Physicians and sonographers Sonosite Nanomaxx EFAST Expert review of original images Sponsored by the University of Bradford