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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study cohorts

From: Identification and validation of objective triggers for initiation of resuscitation management of acutely ill non-trauma patients: the INITIATE IRON MAN study

Variable Derivation Internal validation External validation
OBSERvE OBSERvE-DUS
Number of patients, n 108 993 357 187
Female sex 51 (47.2) 478 (48.1) 204 (57.1) 81 (43.4)
Age in years 68 (56–80) 58 (36–72) 73 (59–82) 74 (63–82)
Reason for admission     
Sepsis/infection 25 (23.1) 99 (10.0) 16 (4.5) 10 (5.3)
Cardiovascular 19 (17.6) 181 (17.4) 75 (21.0) 48 (25.7)
Neurologic 12 (11.1) 278 (28.1) 79 (21.1) 42 (22.5)
Respiratory 39 (36.1) 68 (6.9) 117 (32.8) 56 (29.9)
Intoxication 9 (8.3) 12 (1.2) 32 (9.0) 9 (4.8)
Hemorrhage 5 (4.6) 32 (3.2) 22 (6.2) 5 (2.7)
Other 9 (8.3) 319 (32.1) 16 (4.5) 17 (9.1)
Emergency medicine score     
qSOFA score 1 (1–2) 0 (0–0) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2)
NEWS score 7 (5–10) 0 (1–2) Not recorded Not recorded
Vital sign     
SBP 121 (90–144) 139 (125–155) 140 (103–170) 128 (100–164)
SpO2 at room air, % 91 (84–97) 98 (97–100) 94 (84–100) 96 (89–98)
RR, breaths/min 21 (16–27) 15 (14–16) 20 (12–35) 20 (16–28)
Admission lactate, mmol/l 2.1 (1.3–3.5) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 2.5 (1.5–5.6) 2.1 (1.3–3.5)
Outcome     
ICU admission 48 (44.4) 65 (6.5) 296 (82.9) 103 (55.1)
In-hospital mortality 17 (15.7) 23 (2.3) 89 (24.9) 29 (15.5)
  1. Data are shown as n (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. ED, emergency department; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile range; qSOFA, Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SpO2, oxygen saturation