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Table 2 Interventions and outcomes of the study cohort

From: Hospitals with and without neurosurgery: a comparative study evaluating the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury

Variables NSH No NSH P valuea
All Matched (1:3)
Interventions in ICUs—N (%)
 Hypothermia 93 (1.4) 5 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 0.636
 External ventricular drainage without ICP monitoring 92 (1.4) 2 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 0.738
 External ventricular drainage with ICP monitoringb 398 (6.0) 31 (4.5) 0 (0.0) 0.001
 Barbiturate infusion for refractory ICP 393 (5.9) 18 (2.6) 1 (0.4) 0.045
 Hyperventilation paCO2 < 25 mmHg 312 (4.7) 17 (2.4) 9 (3.9) 0.251
 Indomethacin 23 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1.000
 Mannitol (multiple doses) 1613 (24.1) 119 (17.1) 43 (18.5) 0.618
 Hypertonic saline 816 (12.2) 46 (6.6) 15 (6.5) 0.939
 Invasive monitoring of intracranial pressurec 1930 (28.9) 105 (15.1) 6 (2.6) < 0.001
Complications during ICU stay—N (%)
 Cardiovascular 693 (10.4) 59 (8.5) 14 (6.0) 0.231
 Gastrointestinal 197 (2.9) 17 (2.4) 3 (1.3) 0.296
 Neurologicald 2438 (36.5) 179 (25.7) 74 (31.9) 0.067
 Respiratory 954 (14.3) 90 (12.9) 12 (5.2) 0.001
 Other 325 (4.9) 24 (3.4) 3 (1.3) 0.091
 Infections 2423 (36.3) 193 (27.7) 44 (19.0) 0.008
 Missing 2 0 0  
Three-day mortality—N deaths (%) 836 (12.5) 66 (9.5) 18 (7.8) 0.428
 Missing 2 0 0  
ICU outcome
Dead—N (%) 1569 (23.5) 143 (20.5) 67 (28.9) 0.009
 Missing vital status 7 0 0  
If alive, conditions at discharge: 0.674
 Follow simple commands—N (% on alive) 1443 (28.5) 116 (21.3) 32 (19.8)  
 Cannot follow simple commands—N (% on alive) 3607 (71.5) 429 (78.7) 130 (80.2)  
 Missing conditions at discharge 63 8 3  
If alive, discharged to: < 0.001
 Ward—N (% on alive) 2283 (44.7) 282 (51.0) 115 (69.7)  
 Other ICU—N (% on alive) 1167 (22.9) 113 (20.4) 26 (15.8)  
 High dependency unit—N (% on alive) 1276 (25.0) 137 (24.8) 16 (9.7)  
 Rehabilitation—N (% on alive) 358 (7.0) 20 (3.6) 2 (1.2)  
 Day hospital or long-term care—N (% on alive) 5 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 5 (3.0)  
 Home—N (% on alive) 17 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6)  
Hospital mortality—N deaths (%) 2054 (30.9) 194 (28.0) 82 (35.5) 0.030
 Missing 41 2 1  
ICU stay (days)—Median (Q1–Q3)
 Alive after ICU 9.0 (3.0–18.0) 5.0 (2.0–13.0) 4.0 (2.0–12.0) 0.872
 Deaths in ICU 3.0 (1.0–7.0) 3.0 (1.0–7.0) 5.0 (2.0–10.0) 0.049
 Missing 2 1 0  
Hospital stay (days)—Median (Q1–Q3)
 Alive after ICU 19.0 (10.0–34.0) 16.0 (9.0–.0) 14.0 (7.0–25.0) 0.130
 Missing 17 0 0  
6-month GOS-E—N (%) 0.010
 Severe disability pre-TBI 86 (1.6) 17 (3.2) 4 (2.1)  
 Moderate disability pre-TBI 53 (1.0) 4 (0.7) 0 (0.0)  
 Dead (1) 2308 (42.6) 228 (42.3) 87 (46.5)  
 Vegetative State (2) 174 (3.2) 12 (2.2) 4 (2.1)  
 Lower severe disability (3) 748 (13.8) 76 (14.1) 20 (10.7)  
 Upper severe disability (4) 407 (7.5) 43 (8.0) 11 (5.9)  
 Lower moderate disability (5) 267 (4.9) 21 (3.9) 2 (1.1)  
 Upper moderate disability (6) 428 (7.9) 38 (7.1) 9 (4.8)  
 Lower good recovery (7) 427 (7.9) 44 (8.2) 10 (5.3)  
 Upper good recovery (8) 514 (9.5) 56 (10.4) 40 (21.4)  
 Missing 1270 157 45  
  1. aP-value comparing no-NSH and matched NSH patients
  2. bIntraventricular catheter for both intracranial pressure monitoring and drainage of cerebral spinal fluid
  3. cInvasive monitoring of intracranial pressure includes subdural, subarachnoid, intraparenchymal, intraventricular probe insertion for the sole intracranial pressure monitoring
  4. dNeurological complications include intracranial hypertension, episodes of dilated pupils unreactive to light and brain edema