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Table 1 Comparison of ketamine and propofol as induction agents for RSI in adult trauma patients (N = 548)

From: Ketamine versus propofol for rapid sequence induction in trauma patients: a retrospective study

  Ketamine group
(N = 228)
Propofol group
(N = 320)
P-value
Male, N (%) 162 (71.1) 249 (77.8) 0.07
Age (years), median [IQR] 48.5
[33.3, 61.5]
51.2
[32.8, 68.2]
0.08
Body Mass Index (kg per m2), mean (SD) 24.2
[21.4, 27.4]
24.2
[22.0, 26.5]
0.62
 Missing 113 171  
ISS, median [IQR] 26.5
[19.8, 36.0]
25.0
[17.0, 29.0]
0.001*
 Missing 24 75  
PSS, median [IQR] 0.4 [0.2, 0.9] 0.3 [0.0, 0.7]  < 0.001*
 Missing 2 2  
Trauma mechanism, N (%)    0.002*
 Blunt 195 (85.5) 284 (88.8)  
 Penetrating 23 (10.1) 10 (3.1)  
 Burn 3 (1.3) 3 (0.9)  
 Other 7 (3.1) 23 (7.2)  
Arrival mode, N (%)    0.047*
 Physician staffed ambulance 159 (69.7) 255 (79.7)  
 Physician staffed helicopter 68 (29.8) 64 (20.0)  
 Missing 1 1 (0.3)  
Known associated injuries, N (%)
 TBI 112 (49.1) 184 (57.5) 0.14
 Thorax 129 (56.6) 87 (27.2)  < 0.001*
 Abdomen/Pelvis 85 (37.3) 50 (15.6)  < 0.001*
 Extremities 110 (48.2) 74 (23.1)  < 0.001*
 Spine 82 (36.0) 68 (21.2)  < 0.001*
Intubation location, N (%)    0.26
 Pre-hospital 177 (77.6) 261 (81.6)  
 Trauma centre 51 (22.4) 59 (18.4)  
Drug dose (mg), median [IQR] 75
[50, 100]
100
[80, 150]
NA
 Missing 110 105  
Vital signs before intubation, median [IQR]
SpO2 (%) 96 [88, 100] 98 [90, 100] 0.06
 Missing 119 138  
 HR (BPM) 102 [90, 122] 95 [75, 105]  < 0.001*
 Missing 117 135  
 SBP (mmHg) 121
[100, 150]
130
[110, 160]
0.02*
 Missing 122 143  
 GCS 7 [3, 12] 5 [3, 9] 0.001*
 Missing 6 8  
Shock before intubation§, N (%) 93 (40.8) 92 (28.8) 0.003*
Vital signs after intubation, median [IQR]
 HR (BPM) 104 [87, 125] 94 [75, 105]  < 0.001*
 Missing 112 143  
 SBP (mmHg) 115
[90, 140]
120
[100, 140]
0.22
 Missing 113 136  
 Change in SBP (mmHg), median [IQR] −10 [−25, 10] −15 [−31.5, 0] 0.06
 Missing 135 164  
Neuromuscular blocking agent, N (%)    0.09
 Suxamethonium 161 (70.6) 198 (61.9)  
 Rocuronium 33 (14.5) 67 (20.9)  
 Suxamethonium and Rocuronium 20 (8.8) 33 (10.3)  
 No neuromuscular blocking agent 14 (6.1) 22 (6.8)  
 Use of vasopressor, N (%) 29 (12.7) 65 (20.3) 0.04*
 Missing 63 (27.6) 70 (21.9)  
Outcomes
 30-day mortality, N (%) 46 (20.2) 73 (22.8) 0.46
 Hospital length of stay (days), median [IQR] 12 (3, 23) 6 (1, 15.2) 0.01*
 ICU stay (days), median [IQR] 3 (1, 13) 1 (1, 8) 0.09
 Mechanical ventilation (hours), median [IQR] 29.9
(9.6, 167.2)
20.4
(4.9, 103)
0.68
  1. Comparison of patients in ketamine group (N = 228) and propofol group (N = 320)
  2. BPM beats per minute, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, HR heart rate, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, ISS Injury Severity Score, PSS probability of survival score, RSI Rapid Sequence Induction, SpO2 arterial oxygen saturation, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure; SD Standard Deviation, TBI Traumatic Brain Injury
  3. “Missing” denotes the number of patients with missing information in the field in question
  4. §Shock: SBP before intubation < 90 mmHg
  5. *Statistically significant: P < 0.05
  6. Pearson’s Chi-squared test
  7. Linear Model ANOVA