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Table 1 Bystanders’ principal emotion grouped after different individual-related and situational factors

From: One out of three bystanders of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests shows signs of pathological psychological processing weeks after the incident - results from structured telephone interviews

  Total number Signs of pathological psychological processing (%) Physiological psychological processing (%) No signs of psychological distress due to the OHCA (%)
All bystanders 83 27 (32.5%) 19 (22.9%) 37 (44.6%)
Gender (p = 0.1523)
Male 33 8 (24.2%) 6 (18.2%) 19 (57.6%)
Female 50 19 (38%) 13 (26%) 18 (36%)
Age (p = 0.2372)
 < 35 years 12 2 (16.7%) 3 (25%) 7 (58.3%)
35–64 years 52 18 (34.6%) 9 (17.3%) 25 (48.1%)
 > 64 years 19 7 (36.85%) 7 (36.85%) 5 (26.3%)
Professional or voluntary work in the health sector (p = 0.1183)
Yes 18 7 (38.9%) 1 (5.6%) 10 (55.5%)
No 62 19 (30.7%) 18 (29%) 25 (40.3%)
Relationship between patient and bystander (p = 0.3369)
Know each other 60 22 (36.7%) 14 (23.3%) 24 (40%)
Don´t know each other 23 5 (21.75%) 5 (21.75%) 13 (56.5%)
Degree of family (p = 0.4812)
Spouse/ partner of patient 31 10 (32.25%) 11 (35.5%) 10 (32.25%)
Child of patient 16 6 (37.5%) 3 (18.7%) 7 (43.8%)
Location of cardiac arrest (p = 0.5059)
Home 57 17 (29.8%) 15 (26.3%) 25 (43.9%)
At work or in public 26 10 (38.5%) 4 (15.4%) 12 (46.1%)
Number of additional bystanders (p = 0.3657)
0 35 14 (40%) 10 (28.6%) 11 (31.4%)
1 18 5 (27.8%) 3 (16.7%) 10 (55.5%)
More than 1 30 8 (26.7%) 6 (20%) 16 (53.3%)
Telephone-CPR by dispatcher (p < 0.05)
Yes 30 6 (20%) 11 (36.7%) 13 (43.3%)
No 52 21 (40.4%) 8 (15.4%) 23 (44.2%)
Bystander performed CPR (p < 0.05)
Yes 53 14 (26.4%) 10 (18.9%) 29 (54.7%)
No 30 13 (43.3%) 9 (30%) 8 (26.7%)
Witnessed a cardiac arrest before (p = 0.8931)
Yes 22 8 (36.4%) 5 (22.7%) 9 (40.9%)
No 61 19 (31.1%) 14 (23%) 28 (45.9%)
Person was responsive at the beginning (p = 0.6503)
Yes 17 6 (35.3%) 5 (29.4%) 6 (35.3%)
No 66 21 (31.8%) 14 (21.2%) 31 (47%)
Initial pattern of breathing (p = 0.6844)
No breathing 36 10 (27.8%) 8 (22.2%) 18 (50%)
Agonal breathing 28 11 (39.3%) 6 (21.4%) 11 (39.3%)
Breathing not remembered 14 4 (28.6%) 5 (35.7%) 5 (35.7%)
Bystander was assured by something (e.g. bystanders, experiences) (p = 0.4621)
Yes 48 13 (27.1%) 12 (25%) 23 (47.9%)
No 35 14 (40%) 7 (20%) 14 (40%)
First thought (p = 0.5445)
I knew what to do 37 14 (37.8%) 5 (13.5%) 18 (48.7%)
I did not know what to do 12 3 (25%) 4 (33.3%) 5 (41.7%)
I was terrified 26 9 (34.6%) 7 (26.9%) 10 (38.5%)
First thought not remembered 7 1 (14.3%) 3 (42.85%) 3 (42.85%)