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Table 1 Patient and mechanism of injury characteristics during the non-COVID and COVID-19 period

From: Trauma care during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands: a level 1 trauma multicenter cohort study

  Non-COVID (n = 2423) COVID-19 (n = 1531) p value
Age, yr (± std) 41.6 (± 26.8) 43.0 (± 27.2) 0.100
Age groups, n (%)    0.014
 0–18 685 (28.3%) 397 (25.9%)  
 19–39 556 (22.9%) 320 (20.9%)  
 40–59 451 (18.6%) 309 (20.2%)  
 60–79 464 (19.1%) 352 (23.0%)  
  > 80 267 (11.0%) 153 (10.0%)  
Gender (female), n (%) 1122 (46.3) 722 (47.2%) 0.312
Medical History    
 Cardiac, n (%) 148 (8.2%) 197 (9.7%) 0.054
 Pulmonary n (%) 110 (4.6%) 149 (9.8%) 0.000
 Diabetes, n (%) 115 (4.8%) 81 (5.3%) 0.705
 Dementia, n (%) 45 (1.9%) 38 (2.5%) 0.279
 Psychiatric, n (%) 89 (3.7%) 94 (6.2%) 0.001
Residential status    0.438
 Community, n (%) 2333 (97.1%) 1483 (97%)  
 Nursing home, n (%) 53 (2.2%) 35 (2.3%)  
 Psychiatric clinic, n (%) 9 (0.4%) 6 (0.4%)  
 Homeless, n (%) 2 (0.1%) 4 (0.3%)  
 Rehabilitation center, n (%) 6 (0.2%) 1 (0.1%)  
Triage status    0.002
 T1, n (%) 244 (6.1%) 124 (8.2%)  
 T2, n (%) 278 (11.7%) 162 (10.7%)  
 T3, n (%) 954 (40.3% 560 (37.0%)  
 T4, n (%) 891 (37.6%) 571 (37.7%)  
 T5, n (%) 103 (5.1%) 97 (6.4%)  
Multiple ED admission, n (%) 50 (2.1%) 65 (4.2%)  < 0.001
HET, n (%) 243 (10.1%) 177 (11.7%) 0.067
Setting of injury (public area), n (%) 1521 (66.2%) 871 (58.4%)  < 0.001
Mechanism of injury     < 0.001
 Assault/domestic violence, n (%) 56 (2.4%) 41 (2.7%)  
 Self-inflicted, n (%) 35 (1.5%) 36 (2.4%)  
 Simple fall, n (%) 1140 (48.3%) 821 (54.3%)  
 Traffic related, n (%) 445 (18.8%) 340 (22.5%)  
 Work related, n (%) 98 (4.1%) 79 (5.2%)  
 Sports related, n (%) 588 (24.9%) 196 (13.0%)  
Type of injury    0.002
 Blunt, n (%) 2307 (96.4%) 1432 (94.1%)  
 Penetrating, n (%) 56 (2.3%) 68 (4.5%)  
 Burn (including chemical), n (%) 15 (0.6%) 9 (0.6%)  
 Blast, n (%) 3 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Other, n (%) 13 (0.5%) 12 (0.8%)  
  1. n (%) number of patients and percentage of number during that period, yr year, std standard deviation, ED emergency department, HET high energy trauma