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Table 3 Communication behaviours analyzed, rationale, and definition

From: Evaluating a training intervention for improving alignment between emergency medical telephone operators and callers: a pilot study of communication behaviours

Derived from course description Product of analysis of calls
Behavior Rationale Brief definition for positive evaluation
Greeting decreases uncertainty at the outset of the call and defines the operator’s role the number of the centre (113), the operator’s name, and (if applicable) that they are a nurse
Open-ended questions gives callers maximum autonomy, accountability, and opportunity to describe what is within their epistemic domain (i.e., their situation) request for information that requires a substantive answer from the caller (i.e., more than yes, no, or choice from a closed list of options)
Acknowledging the caller signals that the caller’s actions reflect fulfilled moral or ethical responsibility statements that thank or compliment the caller’s contributions and actions
Expressing empathy bridges emotional distance, allowing the caller to feel the operator’s compassion expressions or utterances that share, match, or directly address the caller’s observable positive or negative state
Agreeing with the caller (avoiding disagreements) offers callers the sense that the operator has confidence in their ability to observe and evaluate the situation the lack of a negative response to caller’s opinions/evaluations that would normally be within the operator’s epistemic domain