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Table 3 Total IES-R score according risks factors

From: Survivors of avalanche accidents: posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and quality of life: a multicentre study

  Total IES-R score p-value
Patient characteristics
Sex
Men 20.30 ± 9.72  
Women 16.89 ± 12.14 0.19
Profession related to the mountains
Yes 19.57 ± 13.28  
No 16.24 ± 10.68 0.39
Family situation
Surrounded 17.81 ± 13.03  
Isolated 16.89 ± 8.80 0.84
Psychiatric history
Yes 11.80 ± 9.18  
No 18.08 ± 11.88 0.18
Avalanche history
Yes 20.25 ± 13.83  
No 17.04 ± 11.44 0.55
Other mountain accident
Yes 21.43 ± 11.08  
No 15.09 ± 11.62 0.02
Other trauma
Yes 17.64 ± 13.57  
No 17.46 ± 11.23 0.82
Avalanche characteristics
Number of people involved
One 15.08 ± 8.80  
Several 19.39 ± 13.42 0.27
Deadly avalanche
Yes 17.83 ± 10.15  
No 17.47 ± 12.01 0.78
Burial
Partial 15.11 ± 8.34  
Complete 22.05 ± 15.63 0.11
Clinical consequences and medical management
Traumatic lesion
Yes 16.24 ± 10.19  
No 21.62 ± 15.52 0,25
ISS
  < 15 17.16 ± 11.96  
  ≥ 15 18.91 ± 11.18 0.60
Loss of consciousness
Yes 20.64 ± 16.29  
No 16.73 ± 10.40 0.52
Pain management
Opioids 16.06 ± 11.48 0.46
Ketamine 17.11 ± 13.84 0.61
Intubation
Yes 36.75 ± 22.62  
No 16.00 ± 9.28 0.04
ICU
Yes 23.89 ± 18.72  
No 16.26 ± 9.65 0.35
Benzodiazepines
Yes 34.75 ± 18.28  
No 16.16 ± 10.15 0.01
Patient’s outcomes
Discharge
Homea 15.91 ± 11.17  
Rehabilitation 25.00 ± 14.02 0.12
Glasgow Outcome Scale
Complete recovery 17.82 ± 11.81  
Incomplete recovery 16.75 ± 11.90 0.65
  1. Values are expressed in mean ± SD. aNot admitted or discharge at home after hospital stay
  2. IES-R Impact of Event Scale Revised; ISS Injury Severity Score; ICU Intensive Care Unit