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Table 5 Demographics, pre-hospital time, systolic blood pressure (SBP; pre-hospital and on admission), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; pre-hospital and on admission), selected pre-hospital therapeutic interventions, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and selected laboratory values of patients with TBI and hypotension on hospital admission (group1), subdivided between patients intubated and not intubated on scene

From: Severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension is a frequent and lethal combination in multiple trauma patients in mountain areas – an analysis of the prospective international Alpine Trauma Registry

Parameter TBI with hypotension
(n = 50)
Pre-hospital intubation
 
Yes No p-value
Age, years, mean ± SD 42.7 ± 19.6 49.4 ± 18.6 0.243
Female sex, n (%) 7 (32%) 9 (32%) 1.000
Pre-hospital SBP, mmHg, mean ± SD 102.0 ± 22.8 103.8 ± 29.3 0.844
SBP on hospital arrival, mmHg, mean ± SD 81.1 ± 12.2 84.8 ± 13.4 0.325
Pre-hospital GCS, mean ± SD 5.8 ± 3. 11.8 ± 3.2 < 0.001
GCS on hospital arrival, mean ± SD 3.3 ± 1.3 12.0 ± 3.5 < 0.001
Crystalloid fluids, ml, mean ± SD 636 ± 303 821 ± 346 0.194
Vasopressor therapy, n (%) 1 (7%) 3 (16%) 0.613
Total pre-hospital time, min, median (range) 82 (33–221) 82.5 (30–1560) 0.881
ISS, mean ± SD 41.1 ± 13.3 44.6 ± 20.2 0.930
AIS head and neck 3.9 ± 0.9 4.5 ± 1.1 0.054
AIS face 2.5 ± 0.7 4.0 ± 1.2 0.133
AIS thorax 3.8 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 0.9 0.846
AIS abdomen 3.2 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.1 0.467
AIS extremities 3.7 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.1 0.752
AIS external 3a
Hemoglobin, g/dl 11.3 ± 2.7 10.4 ± 2.8 0.221
INR 1.4 ± 0.6 1.7 ± 0.7 0.254
aPTT, sec 34.3 ± 21.6 54.7 ± 48.6 0.135
Base excess −6.3 ± 5.1 −4.6 ± 7.7 0.377
  1. Tests performed were independent samples t-tests, except for pre-hospital GCS and GCS on hospital arrival, crystalloid fluids, total pre-hospital time, ISS and AIS head/neck, for which Mann-Whitney U test was used and for vasopressor therapy and female sex, for which Fisher’s exact test was applied
  2. INR international normalized ratio
  3. aonly one case, aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time