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Table 1 Study population demographics, mechanism, presentation, anatomical injury site and patient disposition

From: Helicopter emergency medical service dispatch in older trauma: time to reconsider the trigger?

  Total Immediate Interrogate Crew request P value
Demographics n [%] n [%] n [%] n [%]  
 Patients 1321 [100] 423 [32.0] 575 [43.5] 323 [24.5] .0011
 Age, years (n, IQR) 75 [69–81] 73 [68–80] 75 [69–81] 76 [70–82] .6082
  65–74 657 [49.7] 226 [53.4] 280 [48.7] 151 [46.8] .1571
  75–84 468 [35.4] 136 [32.1] 218 [37.9] 114 [35.3] .1701
  > 85 196 [14.8] 61 [14.4] 77 [13.4] 58 [17.7] .1741
 Males 832 [62.9] 289 [68.3] 354 [61.6] 189 [58.5] .151
 999-dispatch time (mins, mean - 95%CI) 18 [16.5–18.9] 6.3 [5.7–6.9] 15.1 [13.4–16.8] 37.1 [34.4–39.9] .0013
Mechanism 1321 [100] 423 [32.0] 575 [43.5] 323 [24.5] .001
 Assault [blunt] 1 [100] 0 [0] 0 [0] 1 [1.0] .213
 Assault [penetrating] 13 [100] 6 [46.1] 3 [23.0] 4 [30.7] .213
 Fall < 2 m 120 [100] 15 [12.5] 43 [35.8] 62 [51.6] .001
 Fall > 2 m 388 [100] 132 [34.0] 144 [37.1] 112 [28.8] .006
 ISH other 10 [100] 4 [40.0] 4 [40.0] 2 [20.0] .856
 ISH sharp 24 [100] 10 [41.6] 14 [58.3] 0 [0] .005
 Other 103 [100] 23 [22.3] 47 [45.6] 33 [32.0] .49
 RTC cyclist 66 [100] 24 [36.3] 28 [42.4] 14 [21.2] .712
 RTC driver 246 [100] 73 [29.6] 130 [52.8] 43 [17.4] .002
 RTC passenger 103 [100] 35 [33.9] 51 [49.5] 17 [16.5] .14
 RTC pedestrian 212 [100] 87 [41.0] 98 [46.2] 27 [12.7] .001
 RTC motorcyclist 35 [100] 14 [40.0] 13 [37.1] 8 [22.8] .58
Presentation
 TCA 99 [7.4] 71 [16.8] 14 [2.4] 14 [4.3] .001
 Isolated trauma 622 [47.0] 192 [45.4] 266 [46.2] 164 [50.8] .304
 Polytrauma 633 [47.9] 217 [51.3] 266 [46.2] 150 [46.4] .242
Anatomical injury site 4743 [100] 1510 [31.84] 43.28 [43.28] 1180 [24.88] .001
 Head 897 [67.9] 307 [34.2] 350 [39.0] 240 [26.7] .001
 Neck 162 [12.3] 47 [29.0] 74 [45.6] 41 [25.3] .683
 Thorax 544 [41.1] 193 [35.4] 229 [42.0] 122 [22.4] .066
 Abdomen 301 [22.8] 109 [36.2] 128 [42.5] 64 [21.2] .145
 Upper arm 172 [13.0] 54 [31.3] 77 [44.7] 41 [23.8] .95
 Upper leg 143 [10.8] 36 [25.1] 70 [48.9] 37 [25.8] .168
Transported patients 1204 [19.1] 341 [80.6] 550 [95.7] 313 [96.9] .001
 Carry 407 [30.8] 125 [29.5] 163 [28.4] 119 [36.8] .022
 Escort 369 [27.9] 109 [25.7] 147 [25.6] 113 [34.9] .005
 Assist 438 [33.1] 112 [26.44] 243 [42.3] 83 [25.7] .001
 PLE 106 [8.0] 77 [18.2] 22 [3.9] 7 [2.2] .001
 Unknown 1 [0.1] 0 [0] 0 [0] 1 [0.3] .245
Destination
 MTC 793 [60.0] 244 [57.7] 324 [56.4] 225 [69.7] .001
 TU 374 [28.3] 91 [21.5] 202 [35.1] 81 [25.1] .001
 LEH 37 [2.8] 6 [1.4] 24 [4.1] 7 [2.2] .024
 Unknown 11 [0.8] 5 [1.2] 3 [0.5] 3 [1.0] .549
  1. Values are given as frequency (n) and percentage (%). ISH Intentional self-harm, RTC Road traffic collision, TCA Traumatic cardiac arrest, PLE Pronounced life extinct, MTC Major trauma centre, TU Trauma unit, LEH Local emergency hospital