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Table 4 A comparison between the characteristics of different CPR training methodologies

From: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training strategies in the times of COVID-19: a systematic literature review comparing different training methodologies

Variables Standard CPR Training Alternative CPR Training
Non-standard Face to Face CPR Training Hybrid CPR Training Online CPR Training
Contenta CPR, ventilation, and breathing CPR, ventilation, and breathing CPR, ventilation, and breathing CPR, ventilation, and breathing
Duration 20 min - 6 h 45 min - 3 h 4 min – 1.5 h 1 min – 1.5 h
Mode of delivery Professional instructor-led classroom based CPR training Peer-based, flowchart-supplemented, simplified, and multi-staged CPR training Kiosk session, interactive-computer based training plus instructor-led practice, and video-learning followed by hands-on CPR training Interactive-computer based, video-self instruction only, mobile phone video clips, computer based course with Voice Advisory Mannequin (VAM), and virtual reality CPR training
Content Standard 1. “Einlebenretten” (“save one life”) educational framework
2. European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and 2010 guidelines
3. American Heart Association (AHA) Heartsaver Citizen CPR course
4. American Heart Association (AHA) 2010 guidelines
5. National Safety Council Adult CPR training program
6. HeartCode BLS course
7. Dutch Resuscitation Council
8. Danish Red Cross
1. “Einlebenretten” (“save one life”) educational framework
2. European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 guidelines
1. Computer-based HeartCode BLS course
2. National Center for Early Defibrillation
3. Japanese Red Cross Society
4. American Heart Association (AHA) 2010 guidelines
1. Computer-based HeartCode BLS course
2. National Safety Council Adult CPR training program
3. National Center for Early Defibrillation
4. TrygFonden foundation (Denmark)
Skill taughta Calling for help, checking breathing, appropriate number and adequate depth of chest compressions, correct hand placement, compression to ventilation ratio, and adequate ventilation Calling for help, checking breathing, appropriate number and adequate depth of chest compressions, correct hand placement, compression to ventilation ratio, and adequate ventilation Calling for help, checking breathing, appropriate number and adequate depth of chest compressions, correct hand placement, compression to ventilation ratio, and adequate ventilation Calling for help, checking breathing, appropriate number and adequate depth of chest compressions, correct hand placement, compression to ventilation ratio, and adequate ventilation
Outcomes measureda 1. CPR skill performance = compression depth, hand position, adequacy of chest recoil, volume of ventilation
2. CPR quality = time to initiate CPR, continuous chest compressions, number and adequacy of compressions, hand placement, hands-off time
3. CPR knowledge = acquisition and retention
4. CPR related attitudes
5. Self-confidence and willingness to perform CPR
1. CPR skill performance = compression depth, hand position, adequacy of chest recoil, volume of ventilation
2. CPR quality = time to initiate CPR, continuous chest compressions, number and adequacy of compressions, hand placement, hands-off time
3. CPR knowledge = acquisition and retention
4. CPR related attitudes
5. Self-confidence and willingness to perform CPR
1. CPR skill performance = compression depth, hand position, adequacy of chest recoil, volume of ventilation
2. CPR quality = time to initiate CPR, continuous chest compressions, number and adequacy of compressions, hand placement, hands-off time
3. CPR knowledge = acquisition and retention
4. CPR related attitudes
5. Self-confidence and willingness to perform CPR
1. CPR skill performance = compression depth, hand position, adequacy of chest recoil, volume of ventilation
2. CPR quality = time to initiate CPR, continuous chest compressions, number and adequacy of compressions, hand placement, hands-off time
3. CPR knowledge = acquisition and retention
4. CPR related attitudes
5. Self-confidence and willingness to perform CPR
  1. aThe content, skills taught, and outcomes measured were similar between standard and alternative CPR trainings