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Table 3 Characteristics and outcomes per frailty tool groups (n = 372)

From: Feasibility and accuracy of ED frailty identification in older trauma patients: a prospective multi-centre study

  TSFI Non-Frail TSFI Frail PRISMA7 Non-Frail PRISMA7 Frail CFS Non-Frail CFS Frail
n (%) 6 (4.2) 113 (95.0) 147 (42.4) 199 (57.1) 251 (68.2) 117 (31.8)
Age, years (median, IQR) 69 (67–71) 81 (74–86)** 75 (70–80) 84 (77–89)** 78 (71–82) 87 (81–91)**
Female (n,%) 1 (16.7) 60 (53.1) 76 (51.7) 107 (53.8) 117 (46.6) 79 (67.5)
Pre-admission residential status:
Own home (n,%) 5 (83.3) 104 (92.0) 142 (96.6) 174 (87.4)* 238 (94.8) 96 (82.1)**
Residential facility with nursing (n,%) 0 (0.0) 5 (4.4) 1 (0.7) 13 (6.5) 2 (0.8) 14 (12.0)
Residential facility without nursing (n,%) 1 (16.7) 3 (2.7) 3 (2.0) 7 (3.5) 7 (2.8) 4 (3.4)
Warden controlled accommodation (n,%) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.7) 5 (2.5) 3 (1.2) 3 (2.6)
Unknown (n,%) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0)
Comorbidities (median, IQR) 1 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4)** 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4)**
> 5 pre-injury medications (n,%) 0 (0.0) 46 (40.7)* 30 (20.4) 101 (50.8) ** 70 (27.9) 69 (59.0) **
Predominant Mechanism of Injury:
Fall < 2 m (n,%) 0 (0.0) 62 (54.9)* 62 (42.2) 139 (69.8)** 123 (49.0) 88 (75.2)**
Fall > 2 m (n,%) 4 (66.7) 27 (23.9) 39 (26.5) 32 (16.1) 57 (22.7) 19 (16.2)
Pedestrian vs vehicle (n,%) 0 (0.0) 14 (12.4) 21 (14.3) 13 (6.5) 31 (12.4) 5 (4.3)
Admission SBP mmHg (median, IQR) 124 (96–149) 143 (129–162) 139 (120–164) 148 (130–170)* 141 (120–164) 150 (133–170)**
Admission GCS (median, IQR) 15 (15–15) 15 (14–15) 15 (14–15) 15 (14–15) 15 (14–15) 15 (14–15)
TBI (n,%) 0 (0.0) 7 (6.1) 15 (10.2) 24 (12.0) 26 (10.3) 17 (14.5)
ISS (median, IQR) 23 (20–29) 17 (9–26) 16 (9–22) 13 (9–20) 16 (9–22) 13 (9–20)
Critical Care (n,%) 4 (66.6) 7 (6.1)** 24 (16.3) 10 (5.0)** 37 (14.7) 2 (1.7)**
Outcomes
 In-hospital mortality (n,%) 0 (0) 12 (10.6) 5 (3.4) 27 (13.6)* 15 (6) 20 (17.1)*
 Critical care stay, days (mean, SD) 10.5 (17.9) 0.64 (4.22)** 1.8 (6.2) 0.55 (4.6)* 1.5 (6.3) 0.03 (0.29)*
 Total MTC LOS, days (median, IQR) 24 (8–28) 9 (3–19) 12 (4–21) 12 (5–19) 12 (4–20) 13 (6–21)
 Discharge to usual place of residence (n,%) 2 (33.3) 62 (62.8) 106 (75.6) 119 (69.1) 169 (71.6) 66 (68.0)
  1. MOI Mechanism of Injury, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, TBI Traumatic Brain Injury, ISS Injury Severity Score, MTC Major Trauma Centre, LOS Length of Stay. ** p ≤ 0.001; * p < 0.05 comparing non-frail and frail groups (t-test for continuous variables; Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables). False discovery rate = 0.066. Missing data: TSFI Frail ISS:50; PRISMA7 Non-Frail: ISS: 71, LOS: 5; PRISMA7 Frail: SBP: 1, GCS: 1, ISS: 78, LOS: 27; CFS Non-Frail: SBP: 3, GCS: 1, ISS: 92, LOS: 15; CFS Frail: GCS: 1, ISS: 46, LOS: 20