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Table 2 Multivariate Linear Regression Models on Pain Reduction after Nasal Nalbuphine

From: Nasal nalbuphine analgesia in prehospital trauma managed by first-responder personnel on ski slopes in Switzerland: an observational cohort study

Variable Absolute NRS reduction model Relative NRS reduction model (%)
Estimate 95% C.I. p-value Estimate 95% C.I. p-value
Age < 20 years 0.0    0.0   
Age 20–60 years −0.61 −1.11 to −0.10 0.018 − 0.87 −14.89 to −2.48 0.006
Age > 60 years −0.59 − 1.54 to 0.36 0.221 −7.77 − 19.47 to 3.94 0.193
Male sex 0.0    0.0   
Female sex 0.08 −0.39 to 0.54 0.754 1.16 - 4.21 to 7.35 0.594
Initial pain (NRS) 0.51 0.31 to 0.72 < 0.001 2.53 0.03 to 5.04 0.048
  1. Complete-case analysis: Included observations n = 244, 19 missing observations. Estimate = Difference in NRS reduction after application of nasal Nalbuphine according to either level of the factor variable or initial pain level (absolute difference or relative difference in percentage respectively). 95% C.I. = 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Male sex and Age < 20 years served as the reference groups in both models