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Table 4 Results of meta-analysis for all adverse events between direct laryngoscope and video laryngoscope

From: Comparison of adverse events between video and direct laryngoscopes for tracheal intubations in emergency department and ICU patients–a systematic review and meta-analysis

OutcomesStudies, NParticipants, NHeterogeneityHeterogeneity Statistical methodEffect EstimateP values
Rate of EI1811,187P = 0.05; I2 = 39%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.24 [0.18, 0.32]P < 0.01
Rate of EI (RCT)71232P = 0.70; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.27 [0.13, 0.57]P < 0.01
Rate of EI (non-RCT)119955P = 0.01; I2 = 57%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.24 [0.18, 0.32]P < 0.01
Rate of EI (CPR)43723P = 0.44; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.27 [0.15, 0.49]P < 0.01
Rate of EI (non-CPR)157464P = 0.03; I2 = 46%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.23 [0.17, 0.31]P < 0.01
Rate of EI (experienced)51100P = 0.45; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.44 [0.17, 1.15]P = 0.09
Rate of EI (inexperienced)129807P = 0.02; I2 = 50%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.23 [0.17, 0.31]P < 0.01
Rate of EI (unknown expertise)1280Not applicableRR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.38 [0.02, 6.94]P = 0.51
Incidence of hypoxemia41548P = 0.35; I2 = 8%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.85 [0.69, 1.05]P = 0.14
Incidence of hypoxemia (RCT)2510P = 0.34; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.91 [0.56, 1.47]P = 0.70
Incidence of hypoxemia (non-RCT)21038P = 0.13; I2 = 56%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.83 [0.66, 1.05]P = 0.13
Incidence of hypoxemia (experienced)2393P = 0.70; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.05 [0.77, 1.43]P = 0.76
Incidence of hypoxemia (inexperienced)21155P = 0.89; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.71 [0.53, 0.96]P = 0.03
Incidence of severe hypoxemia81739P = 0.26; I2 = 22%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.13 [0.83, 1.52]P = 0.44
Incidence of severe hypoxemia (RCT)4787P = 0.18; I2 = 39%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.11 [0.66, 1.87]P = 0.39
Incidence of severe hypoxemia (non-RCT)4952P = 0.26; I2 = 26%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.13 [0.78, 1.64]P = 0.52
Incidence of severe hypoxemia (experienced)2393P = 0.46; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.16 [0.62, 2.16]P = 0.65
Incidence of severe hypoxemia (inexperienced)61346P = 0.14; I2 = 40%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.12 [0.79, 1.58]P = 0.53
Incidence of aspiration134634P = 0.98; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.83 [0.60, 1.16]P = 0.28
Incidence of aspiration (RCT)71751P = 0.79; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.90 [0.52, 1.58]P = 0.72
Incidence of aspiration (non-RCT)62883P = 0.92; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.80 [0.53, 1.21]P = 0.28
Incidence of aspiration (CPR)1140Not applicableRR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)5.58 [0.25, 126.46]P = 0.28
Incidence of aspiration (non-CPR)134494P = 0.97; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.83 [0.59, 1.16]P = 0.27
Incidence of aspiration (experienced)61769P = 0.88; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.65 [0.32, 1.32]P = 0.24
Incidence of aspiration (inexperienced)72865P = 0.92; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.90 [0.61, 1.31]P = 0.57
Incidence of new-onset CA72433P = 0.20; I2 = 31%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.52 [0.63, 3.66]P = 0.35
Incidence of new-onset CA (RCT)4795P = 0.56; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)3.51 [0.73, 16.92]P = 0.12
Incidence of new-onset CA (non-RCT)31638P = 0.09; I2 = 58%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)0.86 [0.27, 2.70]P = 0.79
Incidence of new-onset CA (experienced)1163Not applicableRR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)3.04 [0.13, 73.46]P = 0.49
Incidence of new-onset CA (inexperienced)62270P = 0.14; I2 = 43%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.42 [0.57, 3.56]P = 0.45
24 h-mortality61477P = 0.82; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.29 [0.98, 1.69]P = 0.07
24 h-mortality (RCT)3646P = 1.00; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)3.06 [0.49, 19.25]P = 0.23
24 h-mortality (non-RCT)3831Not applicableRR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.23 [0.94, 1.62]P = 0.13
24 h-mortality (CPR)1229Not applicableRR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.23 [0.94, 1.62]P = 0.13
24 h-mortality (non-CPR)51248P = 1.00; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)3.06 [0.49, 19.25]P = 0.23
24 h-mortality (experienced)1164Not applicableRR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)3.07 [0.13, 74.35]P = 0.49
24 h-mortality (inexperienced)51313P = 0.73; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.27 [0.97, 1.67]P = 0.08
28 d-mortality71821P = 0.98; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.04 [0.92, 1.19]P = 0.52
28 d-mortality (RCT)51382P = 0.90; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.04 [0.86, 1.26]P = 0.66
28 d-mortality (non-RCT)2439P = 0.82; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.04 [0.88, 1.23]P = 0.62
28 d-mortality (CPR)1229Not applicableRR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.03 [0.86, 1.23]P = 0.76
28 d-mortality (non-CPR)61592P = 0.95; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.05 [0.89, 1.24]P = 0.57
28 d-mortality (experienced)2821P = 0.94; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.22 [0.83, 1.79]P = 0.32
28 d-mortality (inexperienced)51000P = 0.99; I2 = 0%RR (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI)1.01 [0.88, 1.16]P = 0.88
  1. Abbreviations: EI Esophageal intubation, CA Cardiac arrest, RCT Randomized controlled trial, CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, RR Risk ratio, M-H Mantel-Haenszel