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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population and EMS contacts. The infants transported and not transported by ambulance were compared using Mann-Whitney U test for age and Fisher’s test for other variables

From: Why do infants need out-of-hospital emergency medical services? A retrospective, population-based study

  All infants encountered alive N = 1710 Infants not transported by ambulance N = 1027 Infants transported by ambulance N = 683 P-value
Age (months) median (IQR) 6.7 (2.81–9.47) 7 (3.4–9.53) 6 (2.07–9.29) < 0.01
Sex (males) 894 (52.4%) 536 (52.3%) 358 (52.5%) 0.96
SpO2 measured OOH 957 (56.0%) 531 (51.7%) 426 (62.4%) < 0.01
Heart rate measured OOH 1007 (58.9%) 573 (55.8%) 434 (63.5%) < 0.01
Respiratory rate measured OOH 577 (33.7%) 352 (34.3%) 225 (32.9%) 0.60
Temperature measured OOH 994 (58.1%) 533 (51.9%) 461 (67.5%) < 0.01
Blood glucose measured OOH 343 (20.1%) 149 (14.5%) 194 (28.4%) < 0.01
Blood pressure measured OOH 445 (26.0%) 235 (22.9%) 210 (30.7%) < 0.01
GCS measured OOH 498 (29.1%) 327 (31.8%) 171 (25.0%) < 0.01
No measurements OOH 256 (15.0%) 171 (16.7%) 85 (12.4%) 0.02
I.v. access inserted OOH 2 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.3%) 0.16
Lungs auscultated OOH 561 (32.8%) 344 (33.5%) 217 (31.8%) 0.49
Time of day 0.46
 06:00–14:00 465 (27.2%) 281 (27.4%) 184 (26.9%)  
 14:00–22:00 770 (45.0%) 451 (43.9%) 319 (46.7%)  
 22:00–06:00 475 (27.8%) 295 (28.7%) 180 (26.4%)  
Most common symptom codes < 0.01
  “Dyspnea” 471 (27.5%) 262 (25.5%) 209 (30.6%)
  “Fall (low energy)” 322 (18.8%) 241 (23.5%) 81 (11.9%)
  “Choking” 144 (8.4%) 117 (11.4%) 27 (4.0%)
Priority class for dispatch < 0.01
 A 55 (3.2%) 16 (1.6%) 39 (5.7%)
 B 789 (46.1%) 416 (40.5%) 373 (54.6%)
 C 820 (48.0%) 558 (54.3%) 262 (38.4%)
 D 46 (2.7%) 37 (3.6%) 9 (1.3%)
Most common diagnoses at EDb 0.56
 J06.9 “Common cold” 83 (24.6%) 21 (26.9%) 62 (23.9%)
 J04.0 “Laryngitis” 54 (16.0%) 17 (21.8%) 37 (14.3%)
 R56.8 “Seizure” 61 (18.1%) 12 (15.4%) 49 (18.9%)
 R68.1 “Infant with nonspecific symptoms” 49 (14.5%) 8 (10.3%) 41 (15.8%)
 Z03.9 “Observation” 49 (14.5%) 11 (14.1.%) 38 (14.7%)
 S06.0 “Concussion” 41 (12.2%) 9 (11.5%) 32 (12.4%)
 1-year mortality 1 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%) 0.40
 PICU admissions 28 (3.2%) 2 (1.0%)a 26 (3.8%) 0.06
 Medical state other than good upon arrival at ED 91 (11.1%)a 11 (5.7%)a 80 (12.8%) 0.01
 Any medication or respiratory support given at ED 386 (47.2%)a 82 (42.3%)a 304 (48.8%) 0.12
 Hospitalization 336 (19.8%)a 51 (26.3%)a 285 (41.7%) < 0.01
 Surgical procedures during the same visit 18 (2.1%)a 2 (1.0%)a 16 (2.3%) 0.39
  1. SpO2 Peripheral oxygen saturation, ED Emergency department, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, I.v. Intravenous, OOH Out-of-hospital, PICU Pediatric intensive care unit
  2. aIn proportion to those infants who visited ED within 72 h
  3. b The full names of the ICD-10 diagnoses are shown in the Additional file 1