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Table 4 Comparisons between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during the COVID-19 period only (between March 1st and April 31st 2020)

From: Assessment of changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices and outcomes on 1005 victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the COVID-19 outbreak: registry-based study

  COVID-19 patients
N = 197
Non-COVID-19 patients N = 808 p-value
Age, mean ± SD, y 67 ± 18 69 ± 16 0.520
Sex (Male), No./total (%) 117/197 (59.4) 559/808 (69.2) 0.011
Medical history, No./total (%)
- Diabetes 31/197 (15.7) 125/808 (15.5) 0.913
- Cardiovascular 85/197 (43.1) 393/808 (48.6) 0.177
- Respiratory 46/197 (23.4) 114/808 (14.1) 0.002
- Other 51/197 (25.9) 211/808 (26.1) 1.000
- None 10/197 (5.1) 36/808 (4.5) 0.704
 OHCA location (home), No./total (%) 173/197 (87.8) 646/774 (83.5) 0.153
OHCA cause, No./total (%) < 0.001
- Cardiac 67/197 (34.0) 659/808 (81.6)  
- Respiratory 112/197 (56.9) 98/808 (12.1)  
- Neurological 2/197 (1.0) 17/808 (2.1)  
- Other medical cause 16/197 (8.1) 34/808 (4.2)  
 Bystander presence, No./total (%) 126/197 (64.0) 522/808 (64.6) 0.868
 Immediate BLS, No./total (%)a 67/197 (34.0) 276/808 (34.2) 1.000
 Bystander BLS, No./total (%) 99/197 (50.3) 401/808 (49.6) 0.937
 First aid provider BLS, No./total (%) 162/197 (82.2) 683/806 (84.7) 0.382
 Times; No Flow duration, mean ± SD, minb 18 ± 22 14 ± 17 0.009
 Time between T0 and first aid providers arrival, mean ± SD, min 16 ± 18 12 ± 9 0.095
 Time between T0 and MMT arrival, mean ± SD, min 25 ± 22 23 ± 17 0.346
 Time between T0 and ROSC or death, mean ± SD, min 48 ± 27 43 ± 23 0.025
ALS
First recorded cardiac rhythm, No./total (%) 0.073
- Asystole 163/197 (82.7) 633/806 (78.5)  
- VF/pulseless VT 8/197 (4.1) 79/806 (9.8)  
- PEA 18/197 (9.1) 60/806 (7.5)  
- ROSC due to BLS 8/197 (4.1) 34/806 (4.2)  
 ALS implemented, No./total (%) 128/197 (65.0) 548/808 (67.8) 0.447
 ROSC, No./total (%) 34/196 (17.3) 161/803 (20.0) 0.423
 D30 survival, No./total (%) 0/192 (0.0) 26/745 (3.5) < 0.001
  1. aIf a bystander is present, % of BLS initiated immediately at the collapse time
  2. bTime between collapse and initiation of CPR
  3. Data are expressed as the number/total number (frequency %) for qualitative variables or mean ± standard deviation for quantitative variables
  4. OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, MMT mobile medical team, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, VF/pulseless VT ventricular fibrillation/pulseless tachycardia, PEA pulseless electrical activity, BLS basic life support, ALS advanced life support, PIV peripheral intravenous access, IO intraosseous