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Table 8 Different sites for temperature measurement, advantages and disadvantages for field use [200]

From: Multiple trauma management in mountain environments - a scoping review

  Advantages Disadvantages Suitability for prehospital use Logistic considerations Field tested
Skin (heat flux) Noninvasive Low correlation with core temperature High Skin temperature affected by environment, e.g. cold or wet Yes (experimental animal model)
Epitympanic Minimally invasive. Correlates with brain temperature Influenced by ambient temperature and insulation of ear canal. Affected if ear canal contains water or snow [202]. Moderate-high Insulation of the external auditory canal improves the reliability of the reading. Thermistor technology ideal; infrared technology not reliable Yes
Rectum Commonly used in hospital Lags behind core temperature when rewarming Moderate Needs to be inserted deeply (> 15 cm) to avoid measuring temperature of cold feces Yes
Bladder Allows to monitor urinary output Can be affected by cold diuresis. Impractical for field use Low Mostly monitor based probes No
Oesophageal Best correlation with core temperature Requires an advanced airway in place. Needs to be positioned in lower third of oesophagus for reliability Moderate Mostly monitor based (only one hand-held device) Yes