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Table 2 Injury history and clinical findings at the ED with univariate analysis according to the presence of intracranial lesion

From: Cutaneous impact location: a new tool to predict intracranial lesion among the elderly with mild traumatic brain injury?

  Population
(N = 365)
Intracranial lesion
(N = 26)
No intracranial lesion
(N = 339)
p-value
Presence of witness 101 (27.7) 7 (26.9) 94 (27.7) 0.92
Mechanisms of injury (n, %)
 Ground-level fall 335 (91.8) 25 (96.1) 310 (92.3) 0.40
 Fall from > 1 m or 5 stairs 14 (3.8) 1 (3.9) 13 (3.6) 0.65
  Mechanical fall 167 (47.9) 9 (42.3) 158 (50.7) 0.41
  Unknow 142 (40.7) 10 (38.5) 132 (38.9) 0.96
  Faintness or vertigo 27 (7.7) 3 (11.5) 24 (7.1) 0.30
  Syncope 13 (3.7) 2 (7.7) 11 (2.3) 0.26
 Motor vehicle accident 7 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 7 (1.8) 0.59
 Unknown 6 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 6 (1.6) 0.64
 Head striking by an object 3 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.7) 0.80
Activity after falling (n, %)
 Getting up with assistance 203 (55.6) 20 (76.9) 183 (54.0) 0.02
 Staying on the floor for > 1 h 108 (29.6) 4 (15.4) 104 (30.7) 0.1
 Getting up alone 54 (14.8) 2 (7.7) 52 (15.3) 0.29
Symptoms after injury (n, %)
 Unknown 49 (13.5) 2 (7.7) 47 (14.0) 0.37
 Amnesia 48 (13.2) 1 (3.8) 47 (13.9) 0.1
 Headaches 43 (11.8) 11 (42.3) 32 (9.4) < 0.001
 Loss of consciousness 26 (7.1) 1 (3.8) 25 (7.4) 0.50
 Vomiting 11 (3.0) 3 (11.5) 8 (2.4) 0.004
 Seizure 2 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.6) 0.9
Clinical examination
 Glasgow score:
  15 326 (89.3) 19 (73.1) 307 (90.6) 0.005
  14 36 (9.9) 7 (26.9) 29 (8.6) 0.002
  13 3 (0.82) 0 (0) 3 (0.9) 0.80
 Base skull fracture sign 13 (3.6) 3 (11.5) 10 (2.9) 0.06
 Alcohol intoxication (n, %) 7 (1.9) 1 (3.9) 6 (1.8) 0.41
 Focal neurological sign 3 (0.8) 3 (11.5) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Cutaneous injury (n, %)
 Wound requiring suture 131 (35.9) 13 (50.0) 118 (34.8) 0.12
 Hematoma 117 (32.0) 8 (30.8) 109 (32.2) 0.15
 Cutaneous abrasion 78 (21.4) 5 (20.0) 73 (21.5) 0.69
 No cutaneous lesion 39 (10.7) 0 (0.0) 40 (11.8) 0.04
 Cutaneous impact location (n, %)
  Frontal 151 (41.4) 10 (38.5) 141 (41.4) 0.76
  Facial 86 (23.4) 1 (3.8) 85 (25.0) 0.01
  Temporoparietal 52 (14.3) 8 (30.8) 44 (13.0) 0.01
  No cutaneous impact 39 (10.7) 0 (0) 39 (11.8) 0.04
  Occipital 37 (10.1) 7 (26.9) 30 (8.8) 0.003
Associated traumatic and/or medical emergency (n, %)
 Isolated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 141 (38.6) 11 (42.3) 130 (35.6) 0.67
 Traumatic injury 71 (19.5) 5 (19.2) 66 (19.5) 0.97
  Spine or limb fracture 39 (10.7) 4 (15.4) 35 (10.3) 0.30
  Facial bones fracture 9 (2.5) 1 (3.9) 8 (2.4) 0.19
 Medical emergency 58 (8.8) 2 (7.7) 56 (16.5) 0.24