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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients after refractory cardiac arrest

From: Can we predict patient outcome before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest?

    Survival to discharge  
Total
N = 112 (100%)
No
N = 67 (59.8%)
Yes
N = 45 (40.2%)
P-value
Variable   N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Gender Male 83(74.1) 52(77.6) 31(68.9) 0.302
Age Median (IQR) a 59.5 (50.0–67.5) 61.0 (54.0–68.0) 55.0 (45.0–66.0) 0.102
≥ 55 72 (64.3) 49(73.1) 23(51.1) 0.017
Etiology of cardiac arrest Acute myocardial infarction 66 (58.9) 38 (56.7) 28 (62.2) 0.030
Cardiomyopathy 13 (11.6) 9 (13.4) 4 (8.9)  
Myocarditis 12 (10.7) 3 (4.5) 9 (20.0)  
Pulmonary embolism 9 (8.0) 8 (11.9) 1 (2.2)  
Others 12 (10.7) 9 (13.4) 3 (6.7)  
Underlying disease Coronary artery disease 100 (89.3) 59 (88.1) 41 (91.1) 0.759
Hypertension 62 (55.4) 39 (58.2) 23 (51.1) 0.459
Diabetes mellitus 53 (47.3) 32 (47.8) 21 (46.7) 0.909
Pulmonary disease 28 (25.0) 17 (25.4) 11 (24.4) 0.911
Renal insufficiency 36 (32.1) 23 (34.3) 13 (28.9) 0.546
Chronic liver disease 12 (10.7) 6 (9.0) 6 (13.3) 0.539
Hyperlipidemia 26 (23.2) 16 (23.9) 10 (22.2) 0.839
Location of cardiac arrest OHCAb 27 (24.1) 18 (26.9) 9 (20.0) 0.043
EDCAc 20 (17.9) 7 (10.4) 13 (28.9)  
IHCAd 65 (58.0) 42 (62.7) 23 (51.1)  
Initial cardiac rhythm Asystole/PEA 49 (43.8) 39 (58.2) 10 (22.2) 0.002
Pulseless VTe/ Vff 63 (56.2) 28 (41.8) 35 (77.8)  
CPR to ECMO (min) Median (IQR) 46.0 (35.0–57.0) 50.0 (42.0–60.0) 38.0 (35.0–46.0) 0.001
≥ 48 53 (47.3) 43 (64.2) 10 (22.2) <0.001
Lactate (IU/ml) Median (IQR) 8.6 (5.7–13.1) 9.8 (6.6–15.3) 7.0 (5.2–9.5) 0.004
Troponin (ng/L) Median (IQR) 3.2 (0.7–24.4) 3.6 (0.7–37.2) 2.5 (0.5–11.0) 0.350
Initial pH Median (IQR) 7.3 (7.1–7.3) 7.2 (7.1–7.3) 7.3 (7.2–7.4) 0.014
Creatinine (mg/dL) Median (IQR) 1.6 (1.2–2.0) 1.7 (1.3–2.0) 1.4 (1.1–1.9) 0.426
PCI Yes 75 (67.0) 47 (70.1) 28 (62.2) 0.382
IABP Yes 60 (53.6) 39 (58.2) 21 (46.7) 0.230
Dialysis Yes 34 (30.4) 19 (28.4) 15 (33.3) 0.575
Therapeutic Hypothermia Yes 52 (46.4) 31 (46.3) 21 (46.7) 0.967
ROSC Yes 108 (96.4) 63 (94.0) 45 (100.0) 0.147
ECMO duration (hour) Median (IQR) 71.0 (26–124) 44.5 (19–101) 93.0 (66–148) <0.001
Hospital stay (day) Median (IQR) 14.0 (3.5–27.0) 5.0 (2.0–16.0) 24.0 (16.0–47.0) <0.001
Follow-up time (month) Median (IQR) 0.6 (0.1–25.5) 0.1 (0.0–0.5) 33.8 (15.0–48.6) <0.001
Neurologic function at discharge (CPC score) 1 32 (28.6) 0 (0.0) 32 (71.1) <0.001
2 2 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 2 (4.4)  
3 5 (4.5) 0 (0.0) 5 (11.1)  
4 6 (5.4) 0 (0.0) 6 (13.3)  
5 67 (59.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Good neurologic function at discharge Yes (CPC ≤ 2) g 34 (30.4) 0 (0.0) 34 (75.6) <0.001
Survival-6 months later Yes 41 (36.6) 0 (0.0) 41(91.1)  
Neurologic function-6 month later (CPC score) 1 29 (25.9) 0 (0.0) 29 (64.4) <0.001
2 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
3 6 (5.4) 0 (0.0) 6 (13.3)  
4 6 (5.4) 0 (0.0) 6 (13.3)  
5 4 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (8.9)  
Good neurologic function-6 months later Yes (CPC ≤ 2) 29 (25.9) 0 (0.0) 29 (64.4)  
  1. aIQR interquartile range
  2. bOCHA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  3. cEDCA emergency department cardiac arrest
  4. dIHCA in-hospital cardiac arrest
  5. eVT ventricular tachycardiaf
  6. fVf ventricular fibrillation
  7. gCPC cerebral performance category