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Table 4 Results of the generalized linear mixed effect models separate for patient, physician, and contexts attributes, and the diagnostic process

From: Diagnostic error increases mortality and length of hospital stay in patients presenting through the emergency room

  Patient model Physician model Contexts model Process model
OR CI p OR CI p OR CI p OR CI p
Fixed effects
Intercept 0.05 0.01–0.22 <.001 0.11 0.05–0.29 <.001 0.12 0.08–0.17 <.001 0.21 0.07–0.63 .006
 Age 1.22 0.90–1.66 .198          
 Gender 1.46 0.83–2.56 .189          
 Triage category 1.04 0.69–1.57 .835          
 Specific chief complaint 1.32 0.75–2.32 .342          
 CCS group* 1.00 0.95–1.07 .868          
 Experience     1.06 0.89–1.26 .515       
 Gender     1.03 0.59–1.81 .917       
 NEDOCS°        0.77 0.53–1.10 .150    
 Noise        1.07 0.73–1.55 .734    
 Atypical           1.95 1.01–3.74 .046
 Confidence           0.80 0.57–1.12 .195
 Difficulty           1.04 0.72–1.48 .845
Random effects
 NPhysician 44 41 43 44
 ICCPhysician 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  1. *Diagnostic Group according to Clinical Classification Software [55]; °National emergency department overcrowding scale [38]; LOS = length of hospital stay