Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical data

From: The HEAVEN criteria predict laryngoscopic view and intubation success for both direct and video laryngoscopy: a cohort analysis

Parameter DL Only (n = 856) VL Only (n = 3614) Both DL & VL (n = 667) Neither (n = 64)
Demographics
 Age 0–8 years (%) 5 (4–7) 3 (3–4) 3 (1–4) 9 (2–17)
 Age > 70 years (%) 14 (12–17) 15 (14–16) 13 (10–15) 17 (8–27)
 Male gender (%) 66 (63–70) 68 (67–70) 70 (67–74) 80 (70–90)
Clinical Category
 Burn (%) 3 (2–4) 3 (3–4) 4 (3–5) 3 (1–11)
 Medical (%) 21 (18–23) 18 (17–19) 17 (14–20) 17 (10–28)
 Neurologic (%) 16 (13–18) 15 (14–16) 13 (10–15) 8 (3–17)
 Other (%) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 2 (0–8)
 Trauma (%) 60 (57–64) 64 (62–65) 66 (62–70) 70 (58–80)
HEAVEN Criteria
 Hypoxemia (%) 9 (7–11) 9 (8–10) 10 (8–13) 9 (2–17)
 Extremes of size (%) 10 (8–12) 13 (12–14) 13 (11–16) 11 (3–19)
 Anatomic (%) 9 (7–11) 9 (8–10) 13 (11–16) 25 (14–36)
 Vomit/blood/fluid (%) 35 (32–38) 38 (36–39) 43 (39–47) 52 (39–64)
 Exsanguination (%) 1 (0–2) 1 (1–2) 3 (1–4) 3 (0–8)
 Neck mobility (%) 23 (21–26) 28 (26–29) 30 (26–33) 20 (10–30)
 Total # of criteria (mean) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 1.3 (1.0–1.6)
Intubation Data
 Performed en route (%) 10 (8–12) 10 (9–11) 8 (6–11) 8 (1–15)
 Succinylcholine as paralytic (%) 80 (77–82) 75 (74–77) 79 (76–82) 77 (66–87)
 Overall success (%) 96 (95–98) 97 (97–98) 95 (93–96) 88 (79–96)
 1st attempt success (%) 91 (89–93) 91 (90–92) 85 (82–88) 73 (62–83)
 1st attempt success without oxygen desaturation (%) 90 (87–91) 89 (88–90) 83 (80–86) 64 (52–75)
  1. Demographic and clinical data for patients with documentation of Cormack-Lehane class during direct laryngoscopy (DL) only, video laryngoscopy (VL) only, both DL and VL, or neither. All values represent mean or % (95% confidence intervals)