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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Repeated vital sign measurements in the emergency department predict patient deterioration within 72 hours: a prospective observational study

  Overall Not deteriorated Deteriorated p Value
Number of patients [n (%)] 359 (100) 253 (70.5) 106 (29.5)
Demographics
 Age [median (IQR)] 63 (49; 71) 60 (47; 70) 66 (56; 74) .001*
 Male [n (% of the group)] 222 (61.8) 149 (58.9) 73 (68.9) .076
Comorbidity
 Number of comorbidities [median (IQR)] 1 (0; 2) 1 (0; 2) 1 (1; 2) .001*
 Cardiac disease [n (% of the group)] 66 (18.4) 37 (14.6) 29 (27.4) .004*
 COPD [n (% of the group)] 23 (6.4) 12 (4.7) 11 (10.4) .047*
 Diabetes [n (%of the group)] 63 (17.5) 34 (13.4) 29 (27.4) .002*
 Chronic kidney disease [n (% of the group)] 43 (12.0) 26 (10.3) 17 (16.0) .125
 Chronic liver disease [n (% of the group)] 30 (8.4) 19 (7.5) 11 (10.4) .370
 Organ transplant [n (% of the group)] 96 (26.7) 64 (25.3) 32 (30.2) .339
 Malignancy [n (% of the group)] 102 (28.4) 77 (30.4) 25 (23.6) .189
 None of the above [n (% of the group)] 98 (27.3) 81 (32.0) 17 (16.0) .002*
Disease severity
 Infection [n (% of overall)] 82 (22.8) 67 (81.7) 15 (18.3) .011*
 Sepsis [n (% of overall)] 277 (77.2) 186 (67.1) 91 (32.9) .011*
Vital signs at ED admission
 Heart rate (bpm) [median (IQR)] 95 (83.0; 110.0) 95.0 (82.0; 110.0) 95.5 (83.0; 110.0) .262
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) [median (IQR)] 91.7 (83.3; 102.9) 94.3 (86.3; 103.3) 85.8 (73.4; 97.3) <.001*
 Respiratory rate (/min) [median (IQR)] 19.0 (16.0; 24.0) 18.0 (16.0; 23.3) 20.0 (17.0; 25.0) .031*
 Body temperature (°C) [median (IQR)] 37.8 (37.0; 38.6) 37.8 (37.0; 38.6) 38.0 (37.0; 38.8) .564
Vital sign change
 Heart rate (bpm) [median (IQR)] −1.10 (−2.89; 0.00) −1.14 (− 2.89; 0.00) −0.90 (− 2.93; − 0.01) .810
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) [median (IQR)] − 0.97 (− 2.86; 0.57) −0.91 (− 2.71; 0.50) −1.18 (− 3.04; 0.84) .833
 Respiratory rate (/min) [median (IQR)] − 0.07 (− 0.61; 0.58) −0.09 (− 0.69; 0.61) −0.07 (− 0.45; 0.56) .427
 Body temperature (°C) [median (IQR)] −0.05 (− 0.17; 0.06) −0.05 (− 0.17; 0.06) −0.04 (− 0.17; 0.07) .997
Vital sign variability
 Heart rate (bpm) [median (IQR)] 12.0 (7.0; 20.0) 12.0 (7.0; 19.5) 12.0 (7.0; 20.5) .740
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) [median (IQR)] 15.3 (9.7; 21.7) 14.0 (8.9; 19.5) 18.2 (12.6; 27.5) <.001*
 Respiratory rate (/min) [median (IQR)] 5.0 (2.0; 8.0) 4.0 (2.0; 7.0) 6.0 (3.0; 9.8) .001*
 Body temperature (°C) [median (IQR)] 0.7 (0.2; 1.1) 0.7 (0.4; 1.1) 0.7 (0.4; 1.2) .512
Hospital admission
 Length of stay (days) [median (IQR)] 4.7 (0.7; 7.9) 3.6 (0.2; 6.2) 6.7 (4.1; 11.3) <.001*
Mortality
 28-day [n (% of the group)] 17 (4.7) 4 (1.6) 13 (12.3) <.001*
 6-month [n (% of the group)] 44 (12.3) 24 (9.5) 20 (18.9) .013*
  1. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ED: emergency department; IQR: interquartile range