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Table 1 Comparison of case characteristics between Republic of Ireland and Sweden – all Cases, Utstein and EMS-witnessed subgroups

From: Apples to apples: can differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcomes between Sweden and Ireland be explained by core Utstein variables?

  All cases Utstein subgroupc EMS-witnessed subgroup
  Ireland Sweden Ireland Sweden Ireland Sweden
Number of patients (n = 5886) (n = 15,303) (n = 920) (n = 2015) (n = 335) (n = 2211)
Patient and scene characteristics
 Median age in years (inter-quartile range) 66 (52–78) 71 (60–81) 65 (55–75) 69 (60–77) 69 (58–81) 74 (64–84)
 Male (%) 67.9 66.6 78.8 82.3 208 (62.1) 1348 (61.0)
 Incident occurred outside home (%) 32.7 30.1 51.6 59.1 174 (51.9) 1158 (53.7)
 Presumed medical (%) 88.0 89.7 NA NA 305 (91.0) 2086 (94.3)
 Initial rhythm shockable (%) 23.7 23.7 NA NA 107 (33.1) 496 (28.7)
 Witness status (%)    NA NA NA NA
  Not witnessed (%) 40.5 33.7 NA NA NA NA
  Bystander (%) 53.5 51.1 NA NA NA NA
  Crew (%) 5.9 15.2 NA NA NA NA
Interventions
 CPR before ambulance arrival (%)a 66.3 68.8 79.6 80.2 NA NA
Who started CPR before ambulance arrival (%)
 Bystander, not dispatched (%) 60.7 56.9 44.3 52.4 NA NA
 Trained, may be dispatched by ambulance control (%) 33.5 12.8 31.9 9.9 NA NA
 Fire service (%)b 2.8 28.2 1.9 16.3 NA NA
 Police or fire and police (%) 2.1 3.0 1.5 1.6 NA NA
 Defibrillation before ambulance arrival (%)a 5.6 7.3 22.8 23.4 NA NA
 EMS call-response interval in minutes (median)a 13 (8–20) 10 (6–15) 12 (8–18) 8 (5–14) NA NA
 Epinephrine (%) 63.8 80.1 65.7 80.4 58.1 66.3
 Mechanical CPR (%) 4.6 35.9 4.9 41.1 7.8 25.8
 Transported to hospital 53.8 60.9 75.7 84.2 74.9 83.4
Outcomes
 Any ROSC 23.2 32.8 45.9 54.9 42.3 45.1
 ROSC at hospital arrival or arrived at hospital alive 16.9 24.4 37.1 49 32.1 35.4
 Discharged alive from hospital 6.0 UAc 22.2 UA 16.8 UA
 Alive at 30 days UA 11.2 UA 31.7 UA 20.0
 Discharged alive or alive at 30 days 6.0 11.2 22.2 31.7 16.8 20.0
  1. CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, EMS Emergency Medical Services, NA Not applicable, ROSC Return of Spontaneous Circulation, UA Unavailable data
  2. aFor ‘All Cases’ this variable includes only cases NOT witnessed by EMS (Ireland n = 5342; Sweden n = 12,335)
  3. bFire Service’ includes all city and county fire services EXCEPT Dublin Fire Brigade
  4. cThe Utstein Subgroup includes patients who meet the following criteria – aged over 17 years, bystander-witnessed collapse, presumed medical aetiology, initial shockable rhythm