Skip to main content

Table 1 Overview of key clinical questions in the PICO format

From: The Norwegian guidelines for the prehospital management of adult trauma patients with potential spinal injury

Clinical question P I C O
Does routine use of spinal stabilisation prevent secondary neurological injury? Trauma population Spinal stabilisation Stabilisation vs no stabilisation Neurological morbidity
Are there alternative ways of stabilising the spinal column? Trauma population Spinal stabilisation collar/MILS/stretcher/backboard Neurological morbidity
Pain/discomfort
Is there evidence of harmful side effects caused by stabilisation devices? Trauma population Spinal stabilisation Stabilisation vs no stabilisation Neurological morbidity
Pain, discomfort, ulceration
Are there sub-groups of patients that in particular should not be stabilised? Critical injuries
Minor injuries
No spinal stabilisation Stabilisation vs no stabilisation Neurological morbidity & mortality
How should patients with potential spinal injury be evacuated and transported? Trauma population Extrication & transport Stretcher, vacuum mattress, backboard Neurological morbidity & mortality
Pain, discomfort, ulceration
  1. PICO Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome