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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: A systematic review on the effectiveness of back protectors for motorcyclists

  De Rome et al. 2011 [16] Giustini et al. 2014 [17]
Study design Cross-sectional Cross-sectional
Study location and time Australia, 2008 Italy, 2011–2013
Sample size 212 2,319
Participant identification - Hospital records (60 %)
- Local crash repairers (36 %)
- Self-referred (4 %)
Collaboration of the Italian National Institute of health with the National Traffic Police
Data collection Baseline Baseline + 30d after hospitalisation
Intervention 1. Motorcycle jacket
2. Motorcycle gloves
3. Motorcycle pants
4. Motorcycle boots
5. Helmet
6. Motorcycle back protector
(Foam insert in jacket & back armour)
1. Hard-shell back protectors
2. Jacket or vest with an air bag
3. Uncertified Protective clothing;
Outcome Back/spine injuries Spine fracture and spinal cord injury