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Table 2 Comparison of CPR- and ECMO-related characteristics between non-survivors and survivors

From: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: focus on survival rate and neurologic outcome

  All Non-survivors Survivors p
N = 23 N = 13 N = 10
Locations of victims     0.472
 Public 15 10 5
 Home 5 2 3
 In-ambulance during transportation 2 1 1
 Other hospital 1 - 1
Time of collapse to CPR start, min 1 (1, 5) 4 (1, 6) 1 (1, 1.75) 0.166
Bystander CPR 14 6 8 0.197
First monitored rhythm     0.685
 Shockable 10 5 5
 Non-shockable 13 8 5
Transport time from collapse to hospital, min 22 (15, 38) 22 (15, 51) 21 (13, 30) 0.910
EKG rhythm on arrival at ED     0.177
 Vf/VT 20 12 8
 PEA 2 - 2
 Asystole 1 1 -
Collapse to ECMO time, min 84 (61, 101) 94 (72.5, 127) 64.5 (55.25, 89.75) 0.101
CPR time, min 62 (53, 86) 66 (58.5, 108) 57.5 (40.5, 73.75) 0.101
ROSC ≥ 20 min during CPR 3 2 1 1.000
Door to ECMO time, min 55 (41, 67) 62 (49, 71.5) 45 (32.5, 56.5) 0.030a
ROSB at ICU arrival 17 10 7 1.000
Pre-ECMO VIS 41.0 (16.4, 76.2) 63.5 (0, 93.8) 39.6 (31.7, 71.6) 0.832
Post-ECMO VIS; at 6 h on ICU arrival 7.6 (0, 22.6) 11.3 (3.4, 58.4) 0 (0, 7.8) 0.030a
24 h urine output (ml · kg−1 · h−1) 0.92 (0.03, 2.33) 0.1 (0–0.92) 2.39 (1.59, 3.86) <0.001a
Pupil diameter on arrival at ED, mm 6 (6, 7) 7 (6, 7) 6 (3.5, 7.25) 0.414
Pupil reflex positive after ECMO 15 6 10 0.007a
Hypothermia for 24 h 18 12 6 0.127
ECMO duration, h 98 (60, 192) 75 (18.5, 122) 151 (97.25,219.25) 0.008a
CPC grade     
 1    7
 4    3
  1. VIS (vasoactive inotropic score) = IS + milrinone dose (μg/kg/min) + 10000 × vasopressin dose (unit/kg/min) + 100 × norepinephrine dose (μg/kg/min), IS (inotropic score) = dopamine dose (μg/kg/min) + dobutamine dose (μg/kg/min) + 100 × epinephrine dose (μg/kg/min)
  2. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ED emergency department, Vf ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia, PEA pulseless electrical activity, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, ROSB return of spontaneous beat, ICU intensive care unit, CPC cerebral performance category, IQR continuous variables expressed median
  3. asignificant difference