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Table 3 A-C. The association of vital signs, categorised according to RETTS-A, and 1-day mortality (A), 30-day mortality (B), and ICU admission (C), expressed as OR. The tables shows both the crude univariable model and an adjusted multivariable model for each vital sign. The adjusted multivariable model was adjusted for all other vital signs, age, gender, and co-morbidities. The number of patients included in the crude models were up to 96,512 patients; in the adjusted models 90,612 were included because data on one or more variable were missing for 5,900 patients. Each vital sign value was matched to a RETTS-A priority (green, yellow, orange, red), and the patient’s presenting symptom was also matched to a RETTS-A priority. The more urgent of the two became the patient’s final priority

From: The association between vital signs and mortality in a retrospective cohort study of an unselected emergency department population

Vital sign Categorization (RETTS-A priority) 1-day Crude, univariate P for crude model 1-day Adjusted, multivariate P for adjusted model
A. Association of vital signs and 1-day mortality
Airway Open (G) 1   1  
  Threatened (R) 29.3 (6.9 to 124.4) <0.001 5.1 (0.8 to 34.1) 0.093
SpO2 (%) >95 (G) 1   1  
  90–95 (Y) 5.8 (4.2 to 7.9) <0.001 1.9 (1.3 to 2.7) <0.001
  <90 (O) 24.7 (17.5 to 34.9) <0.001 3.0 (2.0 to 4.7) <0.001
  <90 with O2 (R) 92.2 (62.2 to 136.5) <0.001 5.2 (3.1 to 9.0) <0.001
RR (min−1) <8 (R) 24.0 (3.3 to 177.4) 0.002 18.1 (2.1 to 155.5) 0.008
  8–25 (G) 1 <0.001 1 <0.001
  26–30 (O) 9.5 (6.7 to 13.5) <0.001 2.4 (1.6 to 3.7) <0.001
  >30 (R) 33.1 (25.0 to 43.8) <0.001 4.9 (3.4 to 7.3) <0.001
PR (min−1) <40 (O) 12.0 (3.8 to 38.0) <0.001 4.1 (1.2 to 14.4) 0.029
  40–49 (Y) 0.8 (0.1 to 5.9) 0.842 0.4 (0.1 to 3.0) 0.355
  50–110 (G) 1   1  
  111–120 (Y) 3.9 (2.7 to 5.7) <0.001 1.9 (1.2 to 3.0) 0.009
  121–130 (O) 5.7 (3.8 to 8.5) <0.001 1.5 (0.9 to 2.5) 0.138
  RR > 130/IR > 150 (R) 11.2 (7.3 to 17.1) <0.001 2.8 (1.6 to 4.7) <0.001
SBP (mmHg) <90 (R) 28.5 (19.9 to 40.7) <0.001 2.9 (1.8 to 4.9) <0.001
  ≥90 (G) 1   1  
AVPU A (G) 1   1  
  V (Y) 15.9 (11.7 to 21.7) <0.001 4.9 (3.3 to 7.1) <0.001
  P (O) 22.3 (13.6 to 36.7) <0.001 5.4 (2.8 to 10.5) <0.001
  U (R) 101.7 (67.3 to 153.7) <0.001 31.0 (16.9 to 56.8) <0.001
Temp (°C) <35 (O) 20.4 (12.6 to 32.9) <0.001 4.7 (2.6 to 8.5) <0.001
  35–38.5 (G) 1   1  
  38.6–41 (Y) 2.4 (1.4 to 4.2) 0.002 0.4 (0.2 to 0.8) 0.011
  >41 (O) 0 (0 to) 0.999 0 (0 to) 0.999
Age <50a 1   1  
  50–64a 5.2 (2.2 to 12.3) <0.001 7.0 (2.0 to 25.0) 0.003
  65–79a 19.7 (9.1 to 42.7) <0.001 14.0 (4.1 to 47.3) <0.001
  ≥80a 53.3 (25.0 to 113.4) <0.001 35.9 (10.7 to 120.2) <0.001
B. Association of vital signs and 30-day mortality
Vital sign Categorization (RETTS-A priority) 30-day Crude (univariate) P for crude 30-day Adjusted (multivariate) P for adjusted
Airway Open (G) 1   1  
  Threatened (R) 5.8 (1.7 to 19.3) 0.004 0.6 (0.1 to 4.1) 0.627
SpO2 (%) >95 (G) 1   1  
  90–95 (Y) 4.8 (4.3 to 5.3) <0.001 1.8 (1.6 to 2.0) <0.001
  <90 (O) 15.0 (13.0 to 17.2) <0.001 3.1 (2.6 to 3.7) <0.001
  <90 with O2 (R) 31.4 (25.1 to 39.3) <0.001 3.7 (2.8 to 5.0) <0.001
RR (min−1) <8 (R) 2.0 (0.3 to 14.8) 0.491 1.1 (0.1 to 9.5) 0.899
  8–25 (G) 1   1  
  26–30 (O) 6.3 (5.5 to 7.1) <0.001 2.1 (1.8 to 2.4) <0.001
  >30 (R) 13.6 (12.0 to 15.4) <0.001 3.1 (2.6 to 3.6) <0.001
PR (min−1) <40 (O) 4.5 (2.4 to 8.6) <0.001 1.9 (0.9 to 3.9) 0.085
  40–49 (Y) 1.8 (1.2 to 2.8) 0.01 1.1 (0.7 to 1.9) 0.645
  50–110 (G) 1   1  
  111–120 (Y) 2.4 (2.0 to 2.8) <0.001 1.7 (1.4 to 2.1) <0.001
  121–130 (O) 4.3 (3.7 to 5.0) <0.001 2.1 (1.7 to 2.5) <0.001
  RR > 130/IR > 150 (R) 5.5 (4.5 to 6.8) <0.001 2.3 (1.8 to 3.1) <0.001
SBP (mmHg) <90 (R) 12.1 (9.9 to 14.9) <0.001 2.9 (2.2 to 3.8) <0.001
  ≥90 (G) 1   1  
AVPU A (G) 1 <0.001 1  
  V (Y) 8.1 (7.1 to 9.3) <0.001 3.9 (3.3 to 4.6) <0.001
  P (O) 13.0 (10.3 to 16.4) <0.001 7.4 (5.3 to 10.1) <0.001
  U (R) 28.4 (21.2 to 38.1) <0.001 17.3 (11.2 to 26.7) <0.001
Temp (°C) <35 (O) 9.2 (7.1 to 12.1) <0.001 3.2 (2.2 to 4.5) <0.001
  35–38.5 (G) 1   1  
  38.6–41 (Y) 1.6 (1.2 to 2.0) <0.001 0.4 (0.3 to 0.6) <0.001
  >41 (O) 0 (0 to) 0.999 0 (0 to) 0.999
Age <50a 1   1  
  50–64a 4.9 (3.6 to 6.6) <0.001 2.9 (2.1 to 4.0) <0.001
  65–79a 18.0 (13.7 to 23.6) <0.001 7.5 (5.6 to 10.2) <0.001
  ≥80a 53.9 (41.4 to 70.2) <0.001 21.2 (15.7 to 28.6) <0.001
C. Association of vital signs and ICU-admission
Vital sign Categorization (RETTS-A priority) ICU admission Crude (univariate) P for crude ICU admission Adjusted (multivariate) P for adjusted
Airway Open (G) 1   1  
  Threatened (R) 9.4 (3.8 to 23.5) <0.001 1.7 (0.4 to 7.1) 0.463
SpO2 (%) >95 (G) 1   1  
  90–95 (Y) 2.0 (1.8 to 2.2) <0.001 1.4 (1.2 to 1.5) <0.001
  <90 (O) 5.5 (4.7 to 6.3) <0.001 2.6 (2.1 to 3.1) <0.001
  <90 with O2 (R) 16.9 (13.6 to 21.1) <0.001 4.1 (3.0 to 5.6) <0.001
RR (min−1) <8 (R) 13.0 (5.8 to 29.0) <0.001 2.0 (0.7 to 5.2) 0.180
  8–25 (G) 1   1  
  26–30 (O) 3.1 (2.7 to 3.6) <0.001 1.7 (1.4 to 2.0) <0.001
  >30 (R) 7.3 (6.4 to 8.3) <0.001 2.4 (2.0 to 2.9) <0.001
PR (min−1) <40 (O) 16.0 (10.8 to 23.7) <0.001 17.2 (11.0 to 26.7) <0.001
  40–49 (Y) 3.4 (2.5 to 4.6) <0.001 2.9 (2.0 to 4.1) <0.001
  50–110 (G) 1   1  
  111–120 (Y) 3.0 (2.7 to 3.5) <0.001 2.3 (2.0 to 2.6) <0.001
  121–130 (O) 4.9 (4.3 to 5.7) <0.001 3.4 (2.9 to 4.0) <0.001
  RR > 130/IR > 150 (R) 11.6 (10.0 to 13.4) <0.001 6.2 (5.1 to 7.4) <0.001
SBP (mmHg) <90 (R) 8.0 (6.5 to 9.9) <0.001 2.4 (1.8 to 3.2) <0.001
  ≥90 (G) 1   1  
AVPU A (G) 1   1  
  V (Y) 8.6 (7.6 to 9.7) <0.001 5.9 (5.1 to 6.8) <0.001
  P (O) 24.1 (19.9 to 29.2) <0.001 16.6 (13.2 to 20.8) <0.001
  U (R) 64.8 (48.8 to 86.2) <0.001 48.9 (34.4 to 69.5) <0.001
Temp (°C) <35 (O) 9.4 (7.4 to 12.0) <0.001 3.2 (2.3 to 4.3) <0.001
  35–38.5 (G) 1   1  
  38.6–41 (Y) 2.1 (1.7 to 12.5) <0.001 0.8 (0.6 to 1.0) 0.05
  >41 (O) 11.3 (1.2 to 108.4) 0.036 2.4 (0.1 to 40.5) 0.538
Age <50a 1   1  
  50–64a 1.6 (1.4 to 1.7) <0.001 1.1 (0.96 to 1.2) 0.2
  65–79a 1.8 (1.6 to 2.0) <0.001 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) 0.212
  ≥80a 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 0.896 0.3 (0.3 to 0.4) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: RETTS-A Rapid emergency triage and treatment system adult, SpO2 Oxygen saturation, RR respiratory rate, PR pulse rate, SBP Systolic blood pressure, AVPU Alert, Verbal, Responsive to pain, Unresponsive, Temp Temperature, R regular rhythm, IR irregular rhythm, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, O 2 Oxygen, G green triage priority, Y yellow triage priority, O orange triage priority, R red triage priority
  2. aAge is not included in the vital sign priority algorithm of RETTS-A