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Table 5 Variables contributing to the physiologic score changes in the all-variable generalized linear models

From: Ketamine for prehospital trauma analgesia in a low-resource rural trauma system: a retrospective comparative study of ketamine and opioid analgesia in a ten-year cohort in Iraq

  All ISS >8 subgroup
  Estimate (95 % CI) p Estimate (95 % CI) p
Variables contributing to respiratory rate score changes
 Intercept 0.21 (0.08–0.35) 0.002 0.50 (0.25–0.75) <.0001
 Analgesia (pentazocine vs. no analgesia) 0.20 (0.10–0.30) <.0001 0.21 (0.04–0.38) 0.015
 Analgesia (ketamine vs. pentazocine) −0.04 (−0.12–0.04) 0.35 0.01 (−0.13–0.15) 0.88
 Gender (male vs. female) −0.03 (−0.07–0.02) 0.21 0.00 (−0.07–0.07) 0.98
 Age (years) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.86 0.00 (−0.01–0.00) 0.50
 Time from injury to first medical assistance (hours) −0.03 (−0.07–0.00) 0.04 −0.04 (−0.09–0.02) 0.21
 Time from injury to arrival at the hospital (hours) 0.02 (0.00–0.03) 0.02 0.01 (−0.02–0.03) 0.53
 Injury severity score (ISS) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) <.0001 0.00 (−0.01–0.01) 0.97
 Blunt type of injury 0.00 (−0.04–0.04) 0.95 −0.02 (−0.09–0.05) 0.55
Variables contributing to the change in the blood pressure rated score
 Intercept 0.38 (0.23–0.53) <.0001 0.60 (0.33–0.86) <.0001
 Analgesia (pentazocine vs. no analgesia) 0.28 (0.17–0.38) <.0001 0.23 (0.06–0.41) 0.01
 Analgesia (ketamine vs. pentazocine) 0.03 (−0.06–0.12) 0.52 0.16 (0.02–0.31) 0.03
 Gender (male vs. female) −0.01 (−0.06–0.03) 0.60 −0.01 (−0.08–0.07) 0.89
 Age (years) 0.00 (−0.01–0.00) 0.03 0.00 (−0.01–0.00) 0.32
 Time from injury to first medical assistance (hours) 0.03 (0.00–0.07) 0.08 0.02 (−0.03–0.08) 0.44
 Time from injury to arrival at the hospital (hours) −0.01 (−0.03–0.01) 0.20 0.00 (−0.03–0.02) 0.80
 Injury severity score (ISS) 0.02 (0.01–0.02) <.0001 0.00 (−0.01–0.01) 0.78
 Blunt type of injury −0.05 (−0.09–0.00) 0.03 −0.08 (−0.15 – −0.01) 0.03
Variables contributing to consciousness rated score changes
 Intercept 0.43 (0.28–0.59) <.0001 0.52 (0.24–0.80) 0.0003
 Analgesia (pentazocine vs. no analgesia) −0.18 (−0.29– −0.07) 0.001 −0.18 (−0.37–0.00) 0.06
 Analgesia (ketamine vs. pentazocine) −0.03 (−0.13–0.06) 0.51 0.08 (−0.07–0.24) 0.29
 Gender (male vs. female) 0.00 (−0.04–0.05) 0.88 −0.01 (−0.09–0.06) 0.71
 Age (years) 0.00 (−0.01–0.00) 0.14 0.00 (−0.01–0.00) 0.41
 Time from injury to first medical assistance (hours) 0.01 (−0.03–0.04) 0.64 0.01 (−0.05–0.07) 0.71
 Time from injury to arrival at the hospital (hours) 0.00 (−0.01–0.02) 0.77 −0.01 (−0.03–0.02) 0.67
 Injury severity score (ISS) 0.02 (0.01–0.02) <.0001 0.01 (0.00–0.02) 0.01
 Blunt type of injury 0.05 (0.00–0.09) 0.04 0.01 (−0.07–0.08) 0.88