Effects of hemorrhagic shock and EF24 treatment on liver. (A1-A3) Histopathology of liver tissues from a representative set of rats, showing EF24-assisted recovery from hemorrhage-induced damages. The tissue slides were stained with hematoxylin & eosin and digital micrographs were obtained at 100X magnification. (B) Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver tissues (n = 5/group). (C) AST (n = 6/group) and (D) ALT (n = 6/group) levels in plasma collected at 6 h after HS. (E) Plasma levels of CD163 (n = 5/group) at 6 h after HS. * p < 0.05 vs. Ctrl and # p < 0.05 vs. HS.