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Table 2 Characteristics of the datasets used to create the prognostic models and the INRO-PH validation dataset

From: Performance of IMPACT, CRASH and Nijmegen models in predicting six month outcome of patients with severe or moderate TBI: an external validation study

Model Measure or Category INRO-PH IMPACT CRASH Nijmegen: RUBICS
Variable      Moderate Severe Total
N   778 8,509 10,008 126 574 700
Age (median, IQR) Years 50 (28-69) 30 (21-45) - - -  
Age (mean, SD) Years 49 (23) - 37 (17) 48 (22) 43 (20)  
GCS at ED (median, IQR) Points 3 (3-8) - - 11 3  
GCS at randomization (N, %) Mild (13-14) - - 30% - -  
  Moderate (9-12) - - 30% - -  
  Severe (3-8) - - 40% - -  
Motor GCS on admission (N, %) None (1) 244 (31%) 1,395 (16%) - - -  
Extension (2) 31 (4%) 1,042 (12%) - - -  
Abnormal flexion (3) 72 (9%) 1,085 (13%) - - -  
Normal flexion (4) 133 (17%) 1,940 (23%) - - -  
Localizes/obeys (5/6) 218 (28%) 2,591 (30%) - - -  
Untestable/missing 80 (10%) 456 (5%) - - -  
Pupillary reactivity (N, %) Both pupils reactive 371 (71%) 4,486 (63%) 83% 117 (93%) 374 (65%) 491 (70%)
One pupil reactive 31 (6%) 886 (12%) 7% 6 (5%) 74 (13%) 80 (11%)
No pupil reactive 123 (23%) 1,754 (25%) 8% 3 (2%) 126 (22%) 129 (18%)
  Unable to assess 8 (1%) - 3% - -  
Major extracranial injury (N, %) Present 389 (50%) - 23% - -  
Hypoxia (N, %) Yes or suspected 117 (15%) 1,116 (20%) - 12 (10%) 165 (29%) 177 (25%)
Hypotension (N, %) Yes or suspected 103 (13%) 1,171 (18%) - 7 (6%) 133 (23%) 140 (20%)
CT classification (N, %) Diffuse Injury (I) 84 (11%) 360 (7%) - 48 (40%) 104 (19%) 152 (22%)
Diffuse Injury (II) 327 (44%) 1,838 (35%) - 38 (31%) 156 (29%) 194 (28%)
Diffuse Injury (III) 55 (7%) 863 (17%) - 5 (4%) 88 (16%) 93 (13%)
Diffuse Injury (IV) 3 (1%) 187 (4%) - 0 17 (3%) 17 (2%)
Mass lesion evacuated (V) or non-evacuated (VI) 270 (37%) 1,944 (38%) - 30 (25%) 172 (32%) 202 (29%)
tSAH Yes 437 (56%) 3,313 (45%) 32% - -  
EDH Yes 128 (16%) 999 (13%) - - -  
Six month outcome (N, %) Dead 212 (27%) 2,396 (28%) 2,146 (32%)a 29 (23%) 222 (39%) 251 (36%)
Unfavourable 265 (36%) 4,082 (48%) 3,139 (47%)a 39 (31%) 289 (50%) 328 (47%)
  1. aFor subset of patients in the CRASH dataset with GCS < =12; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; tSAH = Traumatic Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; EDH = Epidural hematoma; Data for IMPACT [13], CRASH [6] and RUBICS [11] datasets extracted from original publications-format of data presentation differs in some cases.