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Volume 21 Supplement 1

London Trauma Conference 2012

  • Meeting abstract
  • Open Access

Animal laboratory training improves lung ultrasound proficiency and speed

  • 1, 2,
  • 1, 3,
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Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine201321 (Suppl 1) :S5

  • Published:


  • Medical Student
  • Learning Curve
  • Pneumothorax
  • Normal Lung
  • Skill Level


Although lung ultrasound (US) is accurate in diagnosing pneumothorax (PTX), the training requirements and methods necessary to perform US examinations must be defined.

Study objective

To test whether animal laboratory training (ALT) improves the diagnostic competency and speed of PTX detection with US.


Twenty medical students without US experience attended a 1-day course. Didactic, practical and experimental lectures covered basic of US physics, US machines and lung US, followed by hands-on training to demonstrate the signs of normal lung sliding and PTX. Each student’s diagnostic skill level was tested with three subsequent examinations (day 1, day 2 and a 6-month follow-up) using experimentally induced PTX in porcine models. The outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity for US detection of PTX, self-reported diagnostic confidence and scan time.


The students improved their skills between the initial two examinations: sensitivity from 81.7% (69.1-90.1) to 100.0% (94.3-100.0), and specificity from 90.0% (82.0-94.8) to 98.9% (92.3-100.0); these improvements were sustained 6 months later. There was a significant positive learning curve in choosing the correct answers (p=0.018), a 1-point increase in the self-reported diagnostic confidence (7.8 to 8.8 on a 10-point scale; p<0.05) and a 1-minute reduction in the mean scan time per lung (p<0.05).


Without previous experience and after undergoing training in an animal laboratory, medical students improved their diagnostic proficiency and speed for PTX detection with US. Lung US is a basic technique with a steep learning curve and may be used by multiple medical specialties to accurately diagnose PTX.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Research and Development, Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation, Droebak, Norway
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Emergency Department, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark


© Oveland et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.