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Table 3 Changes of electrolytes after hemorrhage and resuscitation with lactated Ringer’s (LR) solution or normal saline (NS) in pigs

From: Comparisons of normal saline and lactated Ringer’s resuscitation on hemodynamics, metabolic responses, and coagulation in pigs after severe hemorrhagic shock

  Baseline After Hemorrhage and Resuscitation 6 h
Na+ (mM)
Control 138 ± 3 139 ± 6 141 ± 2
LR 140 ± 3 138 ± 3 132 ± 3
NS 141 ± 2 150 ± 3*§♣ 144 ± 6
K+ (mM)
Control 4.5 ± 0.2 4.7 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.2
LR 4.3 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.2 5.2 ± 0.4
NS 4.5 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.3 5.7 ± 0.3*
Ca++ (mM)
Control 9.2 ± 0.2 9.4 ± 0.3 8.9 ± 0.1
LR 9.5 ±0.4 7.7 ± 0.3*♣ 8.3 ± 0.8
NS 9.4 ± 0.3 7.9 ± 0.2*♣ 9.0 ± 0.3
Cl - (mM)
Control 97 ± 2 109 ± 8 100 ± 1
LR 101 ± 2 102 ± 2 97 ± 3
NS 102 ± 3 121 ± 6* 123 ± 6*
  1. Animal groups include control (C, n = 6), hemorrhage with LR resuscitation (LR, n = 6), and hemorrhage with normal saline resuscitation (NS, n = 6). Data are expressed as means ± SE.
  2. *p < 0.05 compared to corresponding baseline values within the group; §p < 0.05 LR vs NS groups; and p < 0.05 compared to corresponding control values.