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Table 2 Changes in oxygen content and extraction after hemorrhage and resuscitation with lactated Ringer’s (LR) solution or normal saline (NS) in pigs

From: Comparisons of normal saline and lactated Ringer’s resuscitation on hemodynamics, metabolic responses, and coagulation in pigs after severe hemorrhagic shock

  Baseline Resuscitation 3 h 6 h
Arterial O 2 (mmHg)
Control 475 ± 18 460 ± 15 497 ± 16 470 ± 15
LR 493 ± 15 513 ± 10 515 ± 15 499 ± 11
NS 478 ± 25 474 ± 21 490 ± 17 470 ± 16
Arterial CO 2 (mmHg)
Control 47 ± 4 48 ± 4 45 ± 3 45 ± 4
LR 44 ± 3 43 ± 3 45 ± 3 43 ± 2
NS 47 ± 2 43 ± 2 44 ± 2 44 ± 1
Venous O2 (mmHg)
Control 55 ± 5 60 ± 4 58 ± 5 50 ± 5
LR 56 ± 2 53 ± 3 36 ± 1* 36 ± 1*
NS 54 ± 2 53 ± 2 46 ± 2* 43 ± 1*♣§
Venous CO2 (mmHg)
Control 60 ± 5 57 ± 4 50 ± 3 51 ± 5
LR 53 ± 2 50 ± 2 56 ± 2 56 ± 1
NS 59 ± 5 50 ± 2 55 ± 1 55 ± 1
Arterial oxygen content (ml O2/dL blood)
Control 13.8 ± 0.6 13.8 ± 0.5 13.6 ± 0.3 13.3 ± 0.7
LR 14.7 ± 0.3 7.6 ± 0.3* 8.5 ± 0.6* 7.8 ± 0.4*
NS 13.2 ± 0.9 6.4 ± 0.4* 7.9 ± 0.4* 7.3 ± 0.4*
Venous oxygen content (ml O2/dL blood)
Control 9.9 ± 0.5 9.9 ± 0.7 9.3 ± 0.6 7.7 ± 0.9
LR 10.8 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.2* 3.5 ± 0.2* 3.1 ± 0.2*
NS 8.6 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.3* 4.2 ± 0.3* 3.8 ± 0.3*
Oxygen extraction (%)
Control 28 ± 4 29 ± 3 32 ± 3 32 ± 3
LR 28 ± 2 43 ± 2* 57 ± 3* 60 ± 3*
NS 35 ± 5 36 ± 3 47 ± 3* 49 ± 3*
  1. Animal groups include control (C, n = 6), hemorrhage with LR resuscitation (LR, n = 6), and hemorrhage with normal saline resuscitation (NS, n = 6). Data are expressed as means ± SE.
  2. *p < 0.05 compared to corresponding baseline values within the group; §p < 0.05 LR vs NS groups; and p < 0.05 compared to corresponding control values.