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Table 1 List of included studies and reported AUROCs

From: Systematic review of predictive performance of injury severity scoring tools

Author Year Country Hospital Tool AUROC N Mortality Mechanism Code Age
Aydin[79] 2008 Turkey 1 ISS 0.907 550 21.6% ND AIS90 >16
     NISS 0.914      
     TRISS (M) 0.934      
Barbieri[31] 2004 Italy 1 TRISS (M) 0.946 93 28.0% ND ND ND
Becalick[32] 2001 UK 1 TRISS (N) 0.941 677 16.2% B + P ND ND
Bergeron[33] 2004 Canada 1 TRISS (M) 0.873 5,672 6.9% B ND ≥15
     TRISS (N) 0.878      
Bijsma[34] 2004 Netherland 1 ISS 0.84 668 18.4% ND ND ND
Bonaventura[80] 2001 Czekoslovakia 1 ISS 0.57 1,113 18.0% ND ND ND
     TRISS (M) 0.78      
Bouamra[35] 2006 UK 106 TRISS (N) 0.937 20,895 4.4% B ND adult
Bouillon[36] 1997 Germany 32 ISS 0.961 612 30.9% ND AIS90 all
     TRISS (M) 0.974      
Brenneman[37] 1998 Canada 1 ISS 0.799 2,328 13.0% B ND all
     NISS 0.852      
Burd[19] 2008 US Multiple ICISS (T) 0.726 276,366*1 2.8% B + P ICD9CM all
     SWI (T) 0.743      
     ICISS (I) 0.793      
     ICISS (T) 0.855 312,592*2 5.1%    
     SWI (T) 0.866      
     ICISS (I) 0.867      
Chytra[81] 1999 Czekoslovakia 1 ISS 0.89 165*3 17.0% ND ND ≥18
     TRISS (M) 0.85      
     ISS 0.76 109*4 38.0%    
     TRISS (M) 0.83      
Davie[38] 2008 New Zealand ND ICISS (T) 0.777 186,835 5.3% ND ICD10AM ND
     ICISS (T) 0.851      
Dillion[39] 2005 UK ND ISS 0.832 53,286 4.1% B ND ≥16
     NISS 0.827      
     TRISS (N) 0.939 12,606 4.4%    
DiRusso[40] 2000 US 25 ISS 0.766 2,768 8.4% all ND all
     TRISS (M) 0.895*5      
     TRISS (M) 0.918*6 2,673 8.3%    
     TRISS (N) 0.92 2,768 8.4%    
Eftekhar[41] 2005 Iran 6 ISS 0.944 7,226 3.8% all AIS90 all
     TRISS (M) 0.969      
Fischler[42] 2007 Switzerland 1 ISS 0.75 208 13.0% ND ND adult
Frankema[43] 2002 Netherland 1 TRISS (M) 0.975 1,024 6.9% B + P AIS90 ≥15
Frankema[44] 2005 Netherland 1 TRISS (M) 0.94 1,102 11.0% B + P AIS90 ≥15
Gabbe[45] 2005 Australia Multiple TRISS (M) 0.87 1,387 4.4% B NR all
Glance[47] 2009 US 359 ISS 0.868 66,214 4.2% B + P ND ≥1
  2009 US 68 SWI (T) 0.862 749,374 5.0% B + P ICD9CM ≥1
Glance[46]     ICISS (T) 0.85      
Guzzo[48] 2005 US 1 ISS 0.791 2,412 15.1% all ND all
     TRISS (M) 0.97      
Hannan[50] 1999 US 192 TRISS (M) 0.858 20,883 7.2% B AIS90 ≥13
     TRISS (N) 0.857      
Hannan[7] 2005 US 192 ISS 0.776 39,534 6.9% B AIS90 ND
     NISS 0.786      
     ICISS (T) 0.809      
Hannan[49] 2007 US ND SWI (I) 0.754 117,630 2.9% all ICD9CM ≥12
     SWI (T) 0.764      
     ICISS (I) 0.744      
     ICISS (T) 0.745      
Harwood[51] 2006 4 countries (Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria) 82 ISS 0.78 10,062 NR B ND ≥16 & ≤70
    NISS 0.785      
    ISS 0.787 549 NR P   
    NISS 0.793      
Hunter[52] 2000 UK ND TRISS (M) 0.9411 7,831 NR ND ND ND
     TRISS (N) 0.9426      
Jamulitrat[53] 2001 Thailand 1 ISS 0.966 2,044 5.6% all AIS90 all
     NISS 0.974      
Kilgo[54] 2006 US 125 TRISS (M) 0.939 310,958 5.0% B + P ND all
     TRISS (N) 0.95      
Kim[8] 1999 Korea 2 ISS 0.892 367 21.3% B ND for AIS ND
     ICISS (T)*7 0.843     ICD10  
     ICISS (T)*8 0.909     ICD9CM  
     TRISS (N) 0.958      
Kroezen[55] 2007 Netherland 2 TRISS (M) 0.806 349 14.0% B + P ND all
     TRISS (N) 0.891 179 22.0%    
Kuhls[56] 2002 US 1 ISS 0.93 3,855 3.5% B + P ND all
     TRISS (M) 0.96      
Lane[57] 1996 Canada 12 TRISS (N) 0.908 1,793 7.9% ND AIS90 ND
Lavoie[58] 2004 Canada 3 ISS 0.818 23,306 6.3% B ND ≥16
     NISS 0.824      
     ISS 0.84 957 15.9% P   
     NISS 0.824      
     ISS 0.819 24,263 6.6% B + P   
     NISS 0.827      
Macleod[59] 2003 Uganda 1 ISS 0.811 150 25.5% all ND ≥16
     TRISS (M) 0.871      
Meredith[9] 2002 US ND ISS 0.876 76,871 5.3% B + P ND for AIS all
     NISS 0.871      
     ICISS (T) 0.893     ICD9CM  
Meredith[60] 2003 US 88 ICISS (T)*9 0.89 170,853 5.4% B + P ICD9CM all
     ICISS (T)*10 0.882      
Meredith[61] 2003 US ND ICISS (I) 0.892 192,347 5.1% B + P ICD9CM all
     ICISS (T) 0.875      
Millham[62] 2004 US ND TRISS (M) 0.837 31,000 4.6% B ND all
     TRISS (N) 0.936      
     TRISS (M) 0.982 5,200 9.9% P   
     TRISS (N) 0.981      
Moore[10] 2008 Canada ND ISS 0.822 25,111 7.3% B + P AIS90 ≥16
     NISS 0.831      
     ICISS (T) 0.852     ICD9  
Moore[63] 2009 Canada, US Multiple TRISS (N) 0.928 178,377 6.2% B ND >16
Osler[11] 1996 US 1 ISS 0.866 2,337 NR B ICD9 all
     ICISS (T) 0.918      
     ISS 0.906 805 NR P   
     ICISS (T) 0.93      
     ISS 0.87 3,142 9.0% B + P   
     ICISS (T) 0.921   
Osler[3] 1997 US 2 ISS 0.869 3,136*11 9.0% B + P AIS90 all
     NISS 0.896      
     ISS 0.896 3,449*12 7.0%    
     NISS 0.907      
Osler[12] 1997 US 1 ISS 0.843 1,812 2.5% all ND for AIS all
     ICISS (T)*13 0.884     ICD9  
     ICISS (T)*14 0.872      
Osler[64] 2008 US 206 ISS 0.871 140,000 4.1% all ND ≥1
Rabbani[65] 2007 Iran 3 TRISS (N) 0.93 2,514 6.0% all ND all
Raum[66] 2009 4 countries (Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria) 97 ISS 0.722 1,292 18.9% all ND ≥16
NISS 0.764      
TRISS (M) 0.851      
Reiter[67] 2004 Australia Multiple TRISS (M) 0.84 5,538 12.3% all ND ≥18
Rhee[68] 1990 US 6 ISS 0.7967 691 15.8% all ND ≥11
Rutledge[69] 1997 US ND ISS 0.939 44,032 6.5% all ND for AIS all
     ICISS (T)*15 0.939     ICD9CM
     ICISS (T)*16 0.929     
     ICISS (T)*9 0.858     
     ICISS (T)*17 0.957     
Rutledge[70] 1998 US Multiple ICISS (T) 0.957 9,438 5.1% all ICD9CM all
Rutledge[13] 1998 US 13 ISS 0.667 7,276 3.8% all ND for AIS all
     ICISS (T) 0.916     ICD9CM  
     TRISS (M) 0.877      
Sacco[14] 1999 US 26 ISS 0.86 30,287 7.1% all ND for AIS all
     NISS 0.86      
     ICISS (T)*15 0.87     ICD9CM  
     ICISS (T)*18 0.88      
Sammour[71] 2009 New Zealand 1 ISS 0.8547 1,197 3.7% all ND ≥15
     TRISS 0.963      
Stephensen[15] 2002 New Zealand ND ISS 0.847 340,000 1.1% all AIS90 all
     NISS 0.829      
     ICISS (T) 0.901     ICD9  
Suarez-Alvarez[73] 1995 Spain 1 TRISS (M) 0.85 404 19.6% B + P ND ND
Tamin[72] 2008 Lebanon 1 ISS 0.881 891 3.6% all ND all
     NISS 0.887      
Tay[74] 2004 US 1 ISS 0.922 NR NR B ND all
     NISS 0.923      
     ISS 0.943 NR NR P   
     NISS 0.924      
     ISS 0.942 6,089   B + P   
     NISS 0.936      
Ulvik[75] 2007 Norway 1 ISS 0.61 325 16.9% ND AIS98 >18
Vassar[76] 1999 US 6 TRISS (M) 0.82 2,414 12.3% B + P AIS90 ≥16
West[16] 2000 US 1 ICISS (T) 0.94 9,923 NR B + P ICD9CM, all
     TRISS (M) 0.947     AIS90  
Wong[77] 1996 Canada 1 TRISS (M) 0.89 470 13.0% all ND all
Wong[17] 2008 Hong Kong 1 ISS 0.8677 1,166 13.8% B ND for AIS, all
     ICISS (I) 0.8379     ICD9  
     ICISS (T) 0.851      
Zhao[78] 2008 China 1 ISS 0.922 1,532 NR B ND ≥16
     NISS 0.923      
     ISS 0.943 578 NR P   
     NISS 0.922      
     ISS 0.943 2,110 NR B + P   
     NISS 0.938      
  1. AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; ISS, Injury Severity Score; NISS, New ISS; ICISS, International Classifications of Diseases-based (ICD-based) ISS; TRISS, Trauma and ISS: TRISS(M), TRISS with coefficients based on the Major Trauma Outcome Study (MTOS); TRISS(N), TRISS with coefficients based on non-MTOS population; ICISS–(T), product of traditional Survival Risk Ratios (SRRs); ICISS(I), product of independent SRRs; SWI, Single Worst Injury; SWI (T), SWI of traditional SRRs; SWI(I), SWI of independent SRRs.
  2. *1, Nationwide Inpatient Sample; *2, National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB); *3, polytrauma without brain injury; *4, polytrauma with brain injury; *5, data in 1995; *6, data in 1996.
  3. *7, SRRs derived from ICD10; *8, SRRs derived from ICD9CM; *9, SRRs derived from North Carolina Hospital Discharge Database; *10, SRRs derived from NTDB.
  4. *11, Albuquerque data; *12, Portland data; *13, SRRs derived from Hospital Information System; *14, SRRs derived from trauma registry; *15, SRRs derived from North Carolina Trauma Registry; *16, SRRs derived from Agency for Health Care Policy Healthcare Cost Utilization Project; *17, SRRs derived from San Diego Trauma Registry; *18, SRRs derived from Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study.
  5. UK, United Kingdom; US, United States of America; NZ, New Zealand.
  6. B, blunt injury; P, penetrating injury; B + P, blunt and penetrating injuries; ND, not described; NR, not reported; NA, not applicable.