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Table 4 Reported risk factors and other variables important for decision making according to Scandinavian guidelines

From: Evaluation of the Scandinavian guidelines for head injuries based on a consecutive series with computed tomography from a Norwegian university hospital

Risk factors and other clinical findings and symptoms Minimal injury Mild injury Moderate injury Missing data or not classifiable Overall
  N = 275 N = 525 N = 160 N = 365 N = 1325
Risk factors from the Scandinavian Guidelines Ω
· Therapeutic anticoagulation or hemophilia 12 (4.4) 12 (2.3%) 7 (4.4%) 26 (7.1%) 57 (4.3%)
· Clinical suspicion of impression fracture or skull base fracture 10 (3.6%) 23 (4.4%) 8 (5.0%) 13 (3.6%) 54 (4.1%)
· Posttraumatic epileptic seizure 1 (0.4%) 5 (1.0%) 5 (3.1%) 5 (1.4%) 16 (1.2%)
· Shunt due to hydrocephalus 1 (0.4%) 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.6%) 0 (0%) 3 (0.2%)
· Multi-traumatized patient # 112 (40.7%) 105 (20.0%) 42 (26.3%) 9 (2.5%) 268 (20.2%)
Additional patient characteristics
· Severe headache, nausea or vomiting 61 (22.2%) 168 (32.0%) 25 (15.6%) 114 (31.2%) 368 (27.8%)
· Use of anti-platelet drugs 17 (6.2%) 20 (3.8%) 20 (12.5%) 51 (14.0%) 108 (8.2%)
· Living alone      
   Yes 32 (11.6%) 73 (13.9%) 33 (20.6%) 66 (18.1%) 204 (15.4%)
   Missing data 4 (1.5%) 8 (1.5%) 11 (6.9%) 79 (21.6%) 102 (7.7%)
Clinical suspicion of alcohol/drug intoxication at presentation
· No 209 (76.0%) 354 (67.4%) 92 (57.5%) 121 (33.2%) 776 (58.6%)
· Yes 27 (9.8%) 128 (24.4%) 50 (31.3%) 25 (6.9%) 230 (17.4%)
· Unknown/missing data 39 (14.2%) 43 (8.2%) 18 (11.3%) 219 (60.0%) 319 (24.1%)
  1. Ω Radiological cranial fracture is also an additional risk factor.
  2. # Questionnaire marked for multi-traumatized patient or CT of multiple organs ordered by hospital trauma team (trauma CT), or multiple radiological examinations of different organs ordered by treating physicians.