Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Treatment for the most common main toxic agents causing acute poisonings in Oslo during one year 2008–2009

From: A one-year observational study of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo: complications, treatment and sequelae

  Ethanol Opioids GHB BZD Paracetamol1 Other Total
Treatment n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Observation only 41 (21) 10 (9) 16 (19) 30 (19) 7 (6) 77 (19) 181 (17)
Treatment* 153 (79) 104 (91) 69 (81) 129 (81) 110 (94) 319 (81) 884 (83)
Total 1942 (100) 114 (100) 85 (100) 159 (100) 117 (100) 396 (100) 1065 (100)
Antidote(s) 35 (18) 81 (71) 41 (48) 74 (47) 99 (85) 77 (19) 407 (38)
-Flumazenil 28 (14) 24 (21) 33 (39) 65 (41) 5 (4) 52 (13) 207 (19)
-Naloxone 18 (9) 79 (69) 38 (45) 26 (16) 7 (6) 18 (5) 186 (17)
-N-acetylcysteine 5 (3) 3 (3)    5 (3) 96 (82) 11 (3) 120 (11)
-Physostigmine      13 (1) 43 (3)    34 (1) 8 (1)
-Phytonadione            4 (1) 4 (<0.5)
-Hydroxocobalamin            2 (1) 2 (<0.5)
-Biperiden            2 (1) 2 (<0.5)
-Other      1 (1)      5 (1) 6 (1)
Other treatment 152 (78) 87 (76) 60 (71) 114 (72) 84 (72) 304 (77) 801 (75)
-Supportive 149 (77) 84 (74) 60 (71) 105 (66) 75 (64) 274 (69) 747 (70)
-Activated charcoal 3 (2) 6 (5)    24 (15) 36 (31) 98 (25) 167 (16)
-Gastric lavage 3 (2) 3 (3)    14 (9) 20 (17) 53 (13) 93 (9)
-Intubation 2 (1) 9 (8) 5 (6) 3 (2) 2 (2) 19 (5) 405 (4)
-Mech. ventilation 2 (1) 9 (8) 4 (5) 3 (2) 1 (1) 176 (4) 36 (3)
-HBO    17 (1)        14 (4) 15 (1)
-Resuscitation 18 (1) 6 (6) 18 (1) 2 (1)    2 (1) 129 (1)
-Therapeutic hypothermia    6 (6) 1 (1) 2 (1)    2 (1) 11 (1)
-Forced alk. diuresis 1 (1) 3 (3)        3 (1) 7 (1)
-Hemodialysis 1 (1) 1 (1)        4 (1) 6 (1)
  1. Alk alkalic, BZD benzodiazepines, GHB gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, HBO hyperbaric oxygen, Mech mechanical, Paracet paracetamol.
  2. Supportive treatment consists of iv fluid, warming, nonantidote medication, and supportive care.
  3. Antidotes given on only one occasion are listed as other.
  4. *Including antidote(s) and supportive treatment.
  5. 1 Including paracetamol–codeine combination drugs.
  6. 2 61 (31%) patients had taken coagents.
  7. 3 Scopolamine coagent, or suspected scopolamine poisoning, but not verified according to criteria.
  8. 4 Scopolamine poisoning.
  9. 5 Four patients were intubated to secure airways during gastric decontamination.
  10. 6 Four cases of antidepressants, three of CO/fire smoke, three of neuroleptics, two of insulin, two of lamotrigine, one amlodipine, one amphetamine, and one case of cocaine poisoning.
  11. 7 Gangrene.
  12. 8 Respiratory arrest only and severe bradycardia.
  13. 9 Of which two had respiratory arrest. All had return of spontaneous circulation.