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Table 1 Demography, injury severity, transfusion requirements, mortality, biochemistry and hemostasis, thrombelastography and biomarkers of coagulopathy in 80 trauma patients stratified according to injury severity score (ISS)

From: Thrombelastography and biomarker profiles in acute coagulopathy of trauma: a prospective study

   ISS > 26 ISS 15-26 ISS < 15 p-value  
Demography, injury severity, transfusion and mortality
N   23 26 30   
Age yrs 45 (25-71) 57 (43-65) 42 (28-49) 0.034 c
Gender m% (n) 74% (17) 62% (16) 67% (20) NS  
Blunt trauma % (n) 96% (22) 96% (25) 83% (25) 0.142  
ISS score 34 (29-36) 22 (17-25) 9 (5-10) NA  
sTBI % (n) 17% (4) 46% (12) 29% (6) 0.091  
GCS (PH) score 7 (3-13) 11 (6-15) 15 (12-15) 0.002 a
Crystalloids (PH) ml 900 (250-1250) 275 (0-500) 250 (25-750) 0.013 a, b
RBC 0-24 h units 2 (0-12) 1 (0-3) 0 (0-1) 0.007 a
FFP 0-24 h units 2 (0-9) 0 (0-1) 0 (0-0) 0.003 a
PLT 0-24 h units 0 (0-4) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0.006 a
MT (> 10 RBC in 24 h) % (n) 35% (8) 4% (1) 3% (1) 0.001 a, b
Mortality % (n) 39% (9) 15% (4) 3% (1) 0.003 a
Shock, sympathoadrenal activation, cell damage, biochemistry and hemostasis
SBP (PH) mmHg 150 (108-156) 136 (125-152) 130 (123-143) NS  
pH   7.31 (7.25-7.33) 7.40 (7.307.40) 7.37 (7.33-7.41) 0.001 a, b
Lactate mmol/l 1.7 (1.2-2.2) 2.5 (1.3-3.1) 1.5 (0.9-2.1) 0.049 c
SBE mmol/l -3.6 (-5.7- -1.9) -2.7 (-4.6- -0.5) -1.0 (-1.8-0.7) 0.005 a
Adrenaline pg/ml 1,062 (328-1,549) 292 (126-1,077) 247 (86-354) 0.002 a
Noradrenaline pg/ml 1,235 (434-1,511) 652 (210-1,288) 332 (217-1,036) 0.040 a
hcDNA % 16.9 (5.6-27.0) 5.6 (2.4-10.3) 0.4 (0.0-9.3) <0.001 a
Hemoglobin mmol/l 8.0 (6.3-9.2) 8.6 (7.2-9.1) 8.4 (7.7-8.9) NS  
Platelet count 109/l 217 (165-252) 193 (173-260) 211 (191-240) NS  
Fibrinogen g/l 2.0 (1.4-2.2) 2.4 (2.1-2.9) 2.6 (2.3-2.9) 0.002 a, b
FXIII microg/ml 25 (20-30) 30 (22-40) 32 (28-41) 0.001 a
vWF % 190 (110-218) 200 (132-223) 204 (146-230) NS  
APTT > 35 sec % 22% (5) 4% (1) 0% 0.009 a
INR > 1.2 % 43% (10) 0% 0% <0.001 a, b
Thrombelastography
R min 5.1 (4.8-5.9) 5.9 (5.1-6.7) 6.0 (5.3-6.4) 0.046  
Angle degrees 65 (62-68) 67 (62-7) 66 (62-70) NS  
MA mm 63 (58-67) 64 (62-68) 63 (61-67) NS  
Ly30 % 0.2 (0.0-0.7) 0.0 (0.0-0.2) 0.3 (0.0-1.0) 0.040  
Platelet activation and thrombin generation
sCD40L pg/ml 394 (281-551) 327 (251-406) 250 (195-305) 0.006 a
PF1.2 nmol/l 4.1 (1.1-13.0) 15.1 (4.1-45.3) 4.2 (1.6-9.5) 0.026 b, c
TAT ng/ml 36 (32-41) 39 (33-44) 35 (29-40) 0.181  
Natural anticoagulation
AT 103 U/l 0.89 (0.69-0.96) 0.9 (0.8-1.00) 0.98 (0.90-1.07) 0.002 a
PC % 92 (75-116) 107 (96-123) 117 (100-129) 0.031 a
APC ng/ml 10.4 (9.4-12.1) 10.5 (8.7-13.5) 8.0 (6.8-10.5) 0.005 a, c
TFPI ng/ml 64 (48-86) 67 (52-80) 54 (41-74) NS  
Fibrinolysis
D-dimer ng/ml 173 (172-176) 170 (144-175) 128 (36-148) <0.001 a, c
tPA ng/ml 7.3 (5.5-15.4) 7.8 (4.7-13.7) 5.2 (2.0-9.9) 0.063  
PAI-1 ng/ml 24 (11-37) 31 (14-68) 20 (13-27) 0.145  
PAP ng/ml 316 (22-599) 475 (83-1152) 225 (54-393) 0.159  
  1. Data are presented as medians (IQR) or n (%), with p-values shown for variables with p < 0.200, and in bold for p < 0.050. ISS groups were compared by Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni adjusted Wilcoxon Rank Sum post hoc tests, Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests and Chi-square/Fischer exact tests, as appropriate.
  2. aISS gr. 0 (ISS < 15) vs. 2 (ISS > 26) Bonferroni adjusted p < 0.05; bISS gr. 1 (ISS 15-26) vs. 2 (ISS > 26) Bonferroni adjusted p < 0.05; cISS gr. 0 (ISS < 15) vs. 1 (ISS 15-26) Bonferroni adjusted p < 0.05.
  3. ISS, injury severity score; sTBI, severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Abbreviated Injury Score head > 3; PH, pre-hospital at the site of injury; GCS, Glascow Coma Score scale; RBC, red blood cells; FFP, fresh frozen plasma; PLT, platelet concentrates; MT, > 10 RBC the initial 24 hours; SBP, systolic blood pressure; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; INR, international normalized ratio. Biomarker abbreviations, see Materials and Methods section, ELISA.