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Table 1 Summary of clinical trials on prehospital cooling.

From: Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - from current concepts to a future standard

  Method EMS setting Number of patients (hypothermia) Control group Intra-arrest cooling Mean ΔT in hypothermia group at hospital admission ΔT Difference to control group Temperature measurement Adverse events
Virkkunen et al 2004 [8] LVICF Physician staffed 13 No No -1.9 (Range -3.1 to +0.4°C) NA Oesophageal 1 transient hypotension
Kim et al 2007 [9] LVICF Paramedic 63 62 No -1.24° SD ± 1.09 p < 0.0001 Oesophageal NS
Kämäräinen et al 2009 [10] LVICF Physician 19 18 No -1.5 (± 0.8)°C p < 0.001 NP NS
Hammer et al 2009 [11] LVICF Physician 22 77 No Median: -1.3°C p = 0.06 Rectal NS
Uray et al 2008 [12] Cooling pads Physician 15 No No Median cooling rate: 3.3 (2.0-4.0)°C/h NA Oesophageal No
Storm et al 2008 [13] Cooling cap Physician 20 25 No Median -1.1°C p < 0.001 Tympanic No
Callaway et al 2002 [7] External cranial cooling Physician staffed 9 13 Yes -0.07°(SD ± 0.06)°C/min* NS NP, Oesophageal No
Bruel et al 2008 [15] LVICF Physician 33 No Yes 2.1 (SD ± 0.29)°C NA Oesophageal 1 pulmonary oedema
Kämäräinen et al 2008 [16] LVICF Paramedic 17 No Yes -1.34 (Range 0 to -2.7°C) NA NP 5 cases of rearrest
  1. EMS; emergency medical service, * Temporal rate of cooling presented only, LVICF; large volume ice cold fluid, Cooling rate presented only. NS; not significant, NP; nasopharyngeal, NA; not applicable.