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  1. Coagulopathy in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. However, few reports focus on pediatric TBI-associated coagulopathy.

    Authors: Cheng-yan You, Si-wei Lu, Yue-qiang Fu and Feng Xu
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:67
  2. Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with about 5.8 million deaths globally and the leading cause of death in those aged 45 and younger. The pre-hospital phase of traumatic injury is ...

    Authors: Matilda K. Björklund, Moira Cruickshank, Robbie A. Lendrum and Katie Gillies
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:65
  3. Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) was introduced to minimise the risk of aspiration of gastric contents during emergency tracheal intubation. It consisted of induction with the use of thiopentone and suxamethoniu...

    Authors: Pascale Avery, Sarah Morton, James Raitt, Hans Morten Lossius and David Lockey
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:64
  4. Retrospective trauma scores are often used to categorise trauma, however, they have little utility in the prehospital or hyper-acute setting and do not define major trauma to non-specialists. This study employ...

    Authors: Lee Thompson, Michael Hill, Fiona Lecky and Gary Shaw
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:63
  5. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) respond to serious trauma and medical emergencies. Geographical disparity and the regionalisation of trauma systems can complicate accurate HEMS dispatch. We sought...

    Authors: J. E. Griggs, J. W. Barrett, E. ter Avest, R. de Coverly, M. Nelson, J. Williams and R. M. Lyon
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:62
  6. Hypotension is associated with worse outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and maintaining a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥110 mmHg is recommended. The aim of this study was to assess the inci...

    Authors: Simon Rauch, Matilde Marzolo, Tomas Dal Cappello, Mathias Ströhle, Peter Mair, Urs Pietsch, Hermann Brugger and Giacomo Strapazzon
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:61
  7. Point-of-care ultrasound is a focus oriented tool for differentiating among cardiopulmonary diseases. Its value in the hands of emergency physicians, with various ultrasound experience, remains uncertain. We t...

    Authors: M. Riishede, A. T. Lassen, G. Baatrup, P. I. Pietersen, N. Jacobsen, K. N. Jeschke and C. B. Laursen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:60
  8. Emergency medical service patients are a vulnerable population and the risk of mortality is considerable. In Denmark, healthcare professionals receive 112-emergency calls and assess the main reason for calling...

    Authors: Stine Ibsen, Tim Alex Lindskou, Christian H. Nickel, Torben Kløjgård, Erika Frischknecht Christensen and Morten Breinholt Søvsø
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:59
  9. A 3 month old boy, with no known health conditions, suffered a sudden collapse at home. On first EMS arrival, ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest was identified and resuscitation following UK national...

    Authors: Peter Kingsley, Jonathan Merefield, Robert G. Walker, Fred W. Chapman and Mark Faulkner
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:58
  10. Colloid fluids supplemented with adequate combinations of coagulation factor concentrates with the capability to restore coagulation could be a desirable future treatment component in massive transfusion.

    Authors: Tobias Koller, Nadia Kinast, Andres Guilarte Castellanos, Sergio Perez Garcia, Pilar Paniagua Iglesias, Xavi León Vintro, Jose Mateo Arranz, Noelia Vilalta Seto, Ma. Victòria Moral García, Ana Belén Moreno-Castaño, Jose Aznar-Salatti, Gines Escolar Albaladejo and Maribel Diaz-Ricart
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:57
  11. Falls from standing are common in the elderly and are associated with a significant risk of bleeding. We have compared the proportional incidence of bleeding complications in patients on either direct oral ant...

    Authors: Martin Müller, Ioannis Chanias, Michael Nagler, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos and Thomas C. Sauter
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:56
  12. During periods such as the COVID-19 crisis, there is a need for responsive public health surveillance indicators in order to monitor both the epidemic growth and potential public health consequences of prevent...

    Authors: Cédric Gil-Jardiné, Gabrielle Chenais, Catherine Pradeau, Eric Tentillier, Philippe Revel, Xavier Combes, Michel Galinski, Eric Tellier and Emmanuel Lagarde
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:55
  13. The burden of frailty on older people is identifiable by its adverse effect on mortality, morbidity and long term functional and health outcomes. In patients suffering from a traumatic injury there is increasi...

    Authors: Heather Jarman, Robert Crouch, Mark Baxter, Chao Wang, George Peck, Dhanupriya Sivapathasuntharam, Cara Jennings and Elaine Cole
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:54
  14. Traditional, instructor led, in-person training of CPR skills has become more challenging due to COVID-19 pandemic. We compared the learning outcomes of standard in-person CPR training (ST) with alternative me...

    Authors: Daniyal Mansoor Ali, Butool Hisam, Natasha Shaukat, Noor Baig, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Jonathan L. Epstein, Eric Goralnick, Paul D. Kivela, Bryan McNally and Junaid Razzak
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:53
  15. Teamwork is essential in healthcare, but team performance tends to deteriorate in stressful situations. Further development of training and education for healthcare teams requires a more complete understanding...

    Authors: Femke S. Dijkstra, Peter G. Renden, Martijn Meeter, Linda J. Schoonmade, Ralf Krage, Hans van Schuppen and Anne de la Croix
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:52
  16. Emerging evidence suggests that the reallocation of health care resources during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts health care system. This study describes the epidemiology and the outcome of major trau...

    Authors: Jean-Denis Moyer, Arthur James, Clément Gakuba, Mathieu Boutonnet, Emeline Angles, Emmanuel Rozenberg, Jean Bardon, Thomas Clavier, Vincent Legros, Marie Werner, Quentin Mathais, Véronique Ramonda, Pierre Le Minh, Yann Berthelot, Clélia Colas, Julien Pottecher…
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:51
  17. A primary task of the Norwegian helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is to provide advanced medical care to the critical ill and injured outside of hospitals. Where HEMS bases are located, directly inf...

    Authors: Caroline J. Jagtenberg, Maaike A. J. Vollebergh, Oddvar Uleberg and Jo Røislien
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:50
  18. Tracheal intubation remains the gold standard of airway management in emergency medicine and maximizing safety, intubation success, and especially first-pass intubation success (FPS) in these situations is imp...

    Authors: Jürgen Knapp, Bettina Eberle, Michael Bernhard, Lorenz Theiler, Urs Pietsch and Roland Albrecht
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:49
  19. Chloroquine use has increased worldwide recently in the setting of experimental treatment for the novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19). Nevertheless, in case of chloroquine intoxication, it can be life threate...

    Authors: Thomas Ferry, Vivianne Amiet, Julia Natterer, Marie-Hélène Perez, Raymond Pfister, Sébastien Colombier and David Longchamp
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:48
  20. The incidence of cerebral fat embolism (CFE) ranges from 0.9–11%, with a mean mortality rate of around 10%. Although no univocal explanation has been identified for the resulting fat embolism syndrome (FES), t...

    Authors: Luigi Vetrugno, Elena Bignami, Cristian Deana, Flavio Bassi, Maria Vargas, Maria Orsaria, Daniele Bagatto, Cristina Intermite, Francesco Meroi, Francesco Saglietti, Marco Sartori, Daniele Orso, Massimo Robiony and Tiziana Bove
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:47
  21. Spinal stabilisation is recommended for prehospital trauma treatment. In Germany, vacuum mattresses are traditionally used for spinal stabilisation, whereas in anglo-american countries, long spine boards are p...

    Authors: Roessler MS, M Riffelmann, N Kunze-Szikszay, M Lier, O Schmid, H Haus, S Schneider and Heuer JF
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:46
  22. Medical dispatching is a highly complex procedure and has an impact upon patient outcome. It includes call-taking and triage, prioritization of resources and the provision of guidance and instructions to calle...

    Authors: Thea Palsgaard Møller, Hejdi Gamst Jensen, Søren Viereck, Freddy Lippert and Doris Østergaaard
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:45
  23. This study is aimed to investigate the association of intraosseous (IO) versus intravenous (IV) route during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

    Authors: Yu-Lin Hsieh, Meng-Che Wu, Jon Wolfshohl, James d’Etienne, Chien-Hua Huang, Tsung-Chien Lu, Edward Pei-Chuan Huang, Eric H. Chou, Chih-Hung Wang and Wen-Jone Chen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:44
  24. Falls in older Emergency Department (ED) patients may indicate underlying frailty. Geriatric follow-up might help improve outcomes in addition to managing the direct cause and consequence of the fall. We aimed...

    Authors: Laura C. Blomaard, Simon P. Mooijaart, Leonie J. van Meer, Julia Leander, Jacinta A. Lucke, Jelle de Gelder, Sander Anten, Jacobijn Gussekloo and Bas de Groot
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:43
  25. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been demonstrated as a useful indicator to predict return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (...

    Authors: Jumpei Tsukuda, Shigeki Fujitani, Mahbubur Rahman, Kenichiro Morisawa, Takeshi Kawaguchi and Yasuhiko Taira
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:42
  26. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the Netherlands, the demand for intensive care beds exceeded availability within days. Initially, patients were redistributed regionally by ground tra...

    Authors: Ed J. Spoelder, Marijn C. T. Tacken, Geert-Jan van Geffen and Cor Slagt
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:41
  27. In a prehospital setting, the severity of respiratory symptoms in patients calling for an ambulance differ. The initial evaluation, diagnosing, and thereby management can be challenging because respiratory sym...

    Authors: Pia Iben Pietersen, Søren Mikkelsen, Annmarie T. Lassen, Simon Helmerik, Gitte Jørgensen, Giti Nadim, Helle Marie Christensen, Daniel Wittrock and Christian B. Laursen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:40
  28. The effect of mechanical CPR is diversely described in the literature. Different mechanical CPR devices are available. The corpuls cpr is a new generation of piston-driven devices and was launched in 2015. The...

    Authors: S. Seewald, S. Dopfer, J. Wnent, B. Jakisch, M. Heller, R. Lefering and JT Gräsner
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:39
  29. Aggressive fluid management and other external factors may lead to hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution (defined as Lethal Triad, LT) contributing to a trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) that worsens patients...

    Authors: Julia K. Böhm, Nadine Schäfer, Marc Maegele, Birgit Stümpges, Ursula Bauerfeind and Michael Caspers
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:38
  30. Transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) indices of myocardial function among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been related to neurological outcome; however, results are inconsistent. We hy...

    Authors: Thomas Hvid Jensen, Peter Juhl-Olsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj Nielsen, Johan Heiberg, Christophe Henri Valdemar Duez, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen, Christian Alcaraz Frederiksen, Hans Kirkegaard and Anders Morten Grejs
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:37
  31. Pain is one of the major symptoms complained about by patients in the prehospital setting, especially in the case of trauma. When there is mountainous topography, as in Switzerland, there may be a time delay b...

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Yoël Berger, David Schurter, Lorenz Theiler, Volker Wenzel, Lorenz Meuli, Andreas Grünenfelder and Roland Albrecht
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:36
  32. ABGs are performed in acute conditions as the reference method for assessing the acid-base status of blood. Hyperventilation and breath-holding are common ventilatory changes that occur around the time of samp...

    Authors: Lisha Shastri, Søren Kjærgaard, Peter S. Thyrrestrup, Stephen E. Rees and Lars P. Thomsen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:35
  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Veronika Hofer, Jochen Hinkelbein, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Michael D. Christian, Thomas Wurmb, Michael Bernhard and Björn Hossfeld
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:34

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:112

  34. Early pre-hospital identification of critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. To identify critically ill non-traumatic and non-cardiac arrest patients, a pre-hospital risk stratification tool w...

    Authors: Lars I. Veldhuis, Markus W. Hollmann, Fabian O. Kooij and Milan L. Ridderikhof
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:32
  35. Some emergency medical systems (EMS) use a dispatch centre where nurses or paramedics assess emergency calls and dispatch ambulances. Paramedics may also provide the first tier of care “in the field”, with the...

    Authors: Victor Nathan Chappuis, Hélène Deham, Philippe Cottet, Birgit Andrea Gartner, François Pierre Sarasin, Marc Niquille, Laurent Suppan and Robert Larribau
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:31
  36. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates w...

    Authors: Kevin Roedl, Gerold Söffker, Dominik Fischer, Jakob Müller, Dirk Westermann, Malte Issleib, Stefan Kluge and Dominik Jarczak
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:30
  37. Over the past decade Smartphone-based activation (SBA) of Community First Responders (CFR) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) has gained much attention and popularity throughout Europe. Various programm...

    Authors: Camilla Metelmann, Bibiana Metelmann, Dorothea Kohnen, Peter Brinkrolf, Linn Andelius, Bernd W. Böttiger, Roman Burkart, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Mario Krammel, Tore Marks, Michael P. Müller, Stefan Prasse, Remy Stieglis, Bernd Strickmann and Karl Christian Thies
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:29
  38. Sufficient analgesia is an obligation, but oligoanalgesia (NRS> 3) is frequently observed prehospitally. Potent analgesics may cause severe adverse events. Thus, analgesia in the helicopter emergency medical s...

    Authors: Christopher Rugg, Simon Woyke, Wolfgang Voelckel, Peter Paal and Mathias Ströhle
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:28
  39. Virtual reality is an innovative technology for medical education associated with high empirical realism.

    Authors: Malte Issleib, Alina Kromer, Hans O. Pinnschmidt, Christoph Süss-Havemann and Jens C. Kubitz
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:27
  40. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and shock index (SI) are accurate indicators of hemodynamic instability and the need for transfusion in trauma patients. We aimed to determine whether the utility and cutoff point...

    Authors: Se Jin Park, Mi Jin Lee, Changho Kim, Haewon Jung, Seong Hun Kim, Wooyoung Nho, Kang Suk Seo, Jungbae Park, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jae Yun Ahn, Sungbae Moon, Jae Wan Cho and Shin-ah Son
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:26
  41. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique have been used widely for research priority setting in health care. Within pre-hospital emergency medicine, such approaches have helped to establish national and ...

    Authors: Sarah McLachlan and Hilary Bungay
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:25
  42. The effects of the body mass index (BMI) on outcomes of patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest are controversial. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between the BMI and the favourable...

    Authors: Heekyung Lee, Jaehoon Oh, Hyunggoo Kang, Tae Ho Lim, Byuk Sung Ko, Hyuk Joong Choi, Seung Min Park, You Hwan Jo, Jong Suk Lee, Yoo Seok Park, Young-Hoon Yoon, Su Jin Kim and Young-Gi Min
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:24
  43. One factor leading to the high mortality rate seen in sepsis is the subtle, dynamic nature of the disease, which can lead to delayed detection and under-resuscitation. This study investigated whether serial he...

    Authors: Steve B. Chukwulebe, David F. Gaieski, Abhishek Bhardwaj, Lakeisha Mulugeta-Gordon, Frances S. Shofer and Anthony J. Dean
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:23
  44. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms in trauma patients who have been recruited from the resuscitation room. Further, we wan...

    Authors: Iris Reiner, Manfred E. Beutel, Philipp Winter, Pol M. Rommens and Sebastian Kuhn
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:22
  45. Ambulance services play an important role in the healthcare system when it comes to handling accidents or acute illnesses outside of hospitals. At the time of patient handover from emergency medical technician...

    Authors: Sveinbjörn Dúason, Björn Gunnarsson and Margrét Hrönn Svavarsdóttir
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:21
  46. The risk of COVID-19 transmission to healthcare professionals is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. The wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) presents a number of potential challenges to r...

    Authors: James Raitt, Ben Watts, Jaspreet Rayet, Mark Hodkinson and David Zideman
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:20
  47. Futile resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 era can lead to risk of disease transmission and unnecessary transport. Various existing basic or a...

    Authors: Haewon Jung, Mi Jin Lee, Jae Wan Cho, Sang Hun Lee, Suk Hee Lee, You Ho Mun, Han-sol Chung, Yang Hun Kim, Gyun Moo Kim, Sin-youl Park, Jae Cheon Jeon and Changho Kim
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:19
  48. The Scandinavian Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System-pediatric (RETTS-p) is a reliable triage system that includes both assessment of vital parameters and a systematic approach to history and symptoms....

    Authors: Siv Steinsmo Ødegård, Thuy Tran, Lars E. Næss-Pleym, Kari Risnes and Henrik Døllner
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:18
  49. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a common cause of major trauma and death. Following an MVC, up to 40% of patients will be trapped in their vehicle. Extrication methods are focused on the prevention of seco...

    Authors: Tim Nutbeam, Rob Fenwick, Jason Smith, Omar Bouamra, Lee Wallis and Willem Stassen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:17

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