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  1. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the risk of an extensive overload of the healthcare systems have elucidated the need to make decisions on the level of life-sustaining treatment for patients requiring h...

    Authors: Hanne Irene Jensen, Sevim Ozden, Gitte Schultz Kristensen, Mihnaz Azizi, Siri Aas Smedemark and Christian Backer Mogensen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:173
  2. Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduce mortality in bleeding trauma patients, with greater effect if administered early. Serum concentrations above 10 µg/mL are considered sufficient to inhibit fibrinolysis. Normally ad...

    Authors: Håkon Kvåle Bakke, Ole Martin Fuskevåg, Erik Waage Nielsen and Erik Sveberg Dietrichs
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:171
  3. Clinically meaningful pain reduction with respect to severity and the adverse events of drugs used in prehospital pain management for children are areas that have not received sufficient attention. The present...

    Authors: Yonas Abebe, Fredrik Hetmann, Kacper Sumera, Matt Holland and Trine Staff
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:170
  4. Selection of incidents and accurate identification of patients that require assistance from physician-staffed emergency medical services (P-EMS) remain essential. We aimed to evaluate P-EMS availability, the u...

    Authors: Martin Samdal, Kjetil Thorsen, Ola Græsli, Mårten Sandberg and Marius Rehn
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:169
  5. The goal of improving quality through centralisation of specialised medical services must be balanced against potential harm caused by delayed access to emergency treatments in rural areas. This study aims to ...

    Authors: Lorenz Meuli, Alexander Zimmermann, Anna-Leonie Menges, Mario Tissi, Stefan Becker, Roland Albrecht and Urs Pietsch
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:168
  6. Non-technical skills (NTS) concepts from high-risk industries such as aviation have been enthusiastically applied to medical teams for decades. Yet it remains unclear whether—and how—these concepts impact resu...

    Authors: J. Colin Evans, M. Blair Evans, Meagan Slack, Michael Peddle and Lorelei Lingard
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:167
  7. Open thoracostomies have become the standard of care in pre-hospital critical care in patients with chest injuries receiving positive pressure ventilation. The procedure has embedded itself as a rapid method t...

    Authors: Stian Mohrsen, Niall McMahon, Alasdair Corfield and Sinéad McKee
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:166
  8. Rapid response systems (RRSs) are essential components of patient safety systems; however, limited evidence exists regarding their effectiveness and optimal structures. We aimed to assess the activation patter...

    Authors: Seung-Hun You, Sun-Young Jung, Hyun Joo Lee, Sulhee Kim and Eunjin Yang
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:164
  9. Auscultating for breath sounds to assess for pneumothorax in the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) settings can be extremely challenging. Thoracic point of care ultrasound (POCUS) offers a seemingly...

    Authors: Edward Griffiths
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:163
  10. In 2015, a national research agenda was established for Dutch prehospital EMS to underpin the evidence base of care delivery and inform policymakers and funders. The continuously increasing demand for ambulanc...

    Authors: Lilian C. M. Vloet, Gijs Hesselink, Sivera A. A. Berben, Margreet Hoogeveen, Paul J. T. Rood and Remco H. A. Ebben
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:162
  11. As pediatric patients are typically rare among helicopter emergency medical systems (HEMS), children might be at risk for oligo-analgesia due to the rescuer’s lack of experience and the fear of side effects.

    Authors: Christopher Rugg, Simon Woyke, Julia Ausserer, Wolfgang Voelckel, Peter Paal and Mathias Ströhle
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:161
  12. While there are clear national resuscitation room admission guidelines for major trauma patients, there are no comparable alarm criteria for critically ill nontrauma (CINT) patients in the emergency department...

    Authors: Alexandros Rovas, Efe Paracikoglu, Mark Michael, André Gries, Janina Dziegielewski, Hermann Pavenstädt, Michael Bernhard and Philipp Kümpers
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:160
  13. We leveraged the data of the international CREACTIVE consortium to investigate whether the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) in hospitals without on-site n...

    Authors: Aimone Giugni, Lorenzo Gamberini, Greta Carrara, Luca Antiga, Obou Brissy, Virginia Buldini, Italo Calamai, Akos Csomos, Alessandra De Luca, Enrico Ferri, Joanne M. Fleming, Primoz Gradisek, Rafael Kaps, Theodoros Kyprianou, Silvia Lagomarsino, Isaac Lazar…
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:158
  14. The emergency medical services (EMS) use guidelines to describe optimal patient care for a wide range of clinical conditions and symptoms. The intent is to guide personnel to provide patient care in line with ...

    Authors: Kristoffer Wibring, Markus Lingman, Johan Herlitz, Lina Blom, Otto Serholt Gripestam and Angela Bång
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:157
  15. In a terror attack mass casualty incident (TerrorMASCAL), compared to a “normal” MASCAL, there is a dynamic course that can extend over several hours. The injury patterns are penetrating and perforating injuri...

    Authors: Nina Thies, Alexandra Zech, Thorsten Kohlmann, Peter Biberthaler, Michael Bayeff-Filloff, Karl-Georg Kanz and Stephan Prückner
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:156
  16. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious airborne virus inducing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This is most relevant for medical staff working under h...

    Authors: Martin Lier, Stefan Nessler, Christine Stadelmann, Meike Pressler, Leif Saager, Onnen Moerer, Markus Roessler, Konrad Meissner and Martin S. Winkler
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:155
  17. Authors: Delphine Douillet, Stéphanie Kalwant, Yara Amro, Benjamin Gicquel, Idriss Arnaudet, Dominique Savary, Quentin Le Bastard and François Javaudin
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:154

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:141

  18. Healthcare workers have reported increased anxiety while working in hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the role of healthcare students in a health crisis has been discussed among clinicians and resear...

    Authors: Kristin Häikiö, Jeanette V. Andersen, Morten Bakkerud, Carl R. Christiansen, Kim Rand and Trine Staff
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:153
  19. The Danish Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) is part of the Danish Emergency Medical Services System serving 5.7 million citizens with 1% living on islands not connected to the mainland by road. HEM...

    Authors: Thea Palsgaard Møller, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Thora Majlund Kjærulff, Kristine Bihrmann, Karen Alstrup, Lars Knudsen, Troels Martin Hansen, Peter Anthony Berlac, Freddy Lippert and Charlotte Barfod
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:152
  20. The helicopter emergency services (HEMS) Benefit Score (HBS) is a nine-level scoring system developed to evaluate the benefits of HEMS missions. The HBS has been in clinical use for two decades in its original...

    Authors: Anssi Heino, Lasse Raatiniemi, Timo Iirola, Merja Meriläinen, Janne Liisanantti and Miretta Tommila
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:151
  21. In the pre-hospital setting, non-urgent patients with non-specific chief complaints pose assessment challenges for the emergency medical systems (EMS). Severely ill patients should be identified among these pa...

    Authors: Milla Jousi, Marja Mäkinen, Johanna Kaartinen, Leena Meriläinen and Maaret Castrén
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:150
  22. Authors: Asger Sonne, Sarita Egholm, Laurits Elgaard, Niklas Breindahl, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Vagn Eskesen, Freddy Lippert, Frans Boch Waldorf, Nicolai Lohse and Lars Simon Rasmussen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:149

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:118

  23. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is, by its nature, a challenging context that may create risks for both patients and employees. It is also known that an organisation’s safety culture has an influence on both ...

    Authors: Anu Venesoja, Veronica Lindström, Pasi Aronen, Maaret Castrén and Susanna Tella
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:148
  24. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) performed at the emergency scene in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) can minimize low-flow time. Target temperature management (TTM) after cardiac arres...

    Authors: Walter Petermichl, Alois Philipp, Karl-Anton Hiller, Maik Foltan, Bernhard Floerchinger, Bernhard Graf and Dirk Lunz
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:147
  25. Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction and a major healthcare burden worldwide. Although sepsis is a medical emergency that requires immediate management, screening for the occurrence of sepsis is diff...

    Authors: Joon-myoung Kwon, Ye Rang Lee, Min-Seung Jung, Yoon-Ji Lee, Yong-Yeon Jo, Da-Young Kang, Soo Youn Lee, Yong-Hyeon Cho, Jae-Hyun Shin, Jang-Hyeon Ban and Kyung-Hee Kim
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:145
  26. There is little evidence of which sepsis screening tool to use in the ambulance setting. The primary aim of the current study was to compare the performance of NEWS2 (National Early Warning score 2) and RETTS ...

    Authors: Ulrika M. Wallgren, Jan Sjölin, Hans Järnbert-Pettersson and Lisa Kurland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:144
  27. Authors: Bernd Wallner, Luca Moroder, Hannah Salchner, Peter Mair, Stefanie Wallner, Gabriel Putzer, Giacomo Strapazzon, Markus Falk and Hermann Brugger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:143

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:129

  28. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during cardiac arrest (ECPR) has increased exponentially. However, reported outcomes vary considerably due to differing study designs and selection criteri...

    Authors: Sameer Karve, Dominique Lahood, Arne Diehl, Aidan Burrell, David H. Tian, Tim Southwood, Paul Forrest and Mark Dennis
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:142
  29. Patients with electrical injury are considered to be at risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Assessing the risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) is the cornerstone of patient management. The aim of th...

    Authors: Delphine Douillet, Stéphanie Kalwant, Yara Amro, Benjamin Gicquel, Idriss Arnaudet, Dominique Savary, Quentin Le Bastard and François Javaudin
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:141

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:154

  30. Major incidents (MI) are rare occurrences in Scandinavia. Literature depicting Scandinavian MI management is scarce and case reports and research is called for. In 2019, a trailer falling off a freight train s...

    Authors: Peter Martin Hansen, Søren Bruun Jepsen, Søren Mikkelsen and Marius Rehn
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:140
  31. The Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) questionnaire is designed for rating the non-technical performance of emergency medical teams during emergencies, e.g., resuscitation or trauma management. Original...

    Authors: Klas Karlgren, Anders Dahlström, Anderz Birkestam, Annelie Drevstam Norling, Gustav Forss, Mikael Andersson Franko, Simon Cooper, Thomas Leijon and Charlotta Paulsson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:139
  32. Evidenced-based guidelines on when to cease resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are limited and support for paramedics typically defaults to the senior clinician. Senior clinicians include paramedi...

    Authors: Ali Coppola, Sarah Black and Ruth Endacott
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:138
  33. Penetrating injuries to the neck pose a unique challenge to clinicians due to the proximity of multiple significant anatomical structures with little protective soft tissue coverage. Injuries to this area, whi...

    Authors: Christopher Simpson, Harriet Tucker and Anthony Hudson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:137
  34. Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) is used for emergency tracheal intubation to minimise the risk of pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents. Ketamine and propofol are two commonly used induction agents for RSI i...

    Authors: Niklas Breindahl, Josefine Baekgaard, Rasmus Ejlersgaard Christensen, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Andreas Creutzburg, Jacob Steinmetz and Lars S. Rasmussen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:136
  35. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the French Government imposed various containment strategies, such as severe lockdown (SL) or moderate lockdown (ML). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both st...

    Authors: Jean-Denis Moyer, Paer-Selim Abback, Sophie Hamada, Thibault Martinez, Marie Werner and Arthur James
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:135
  36. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between hyperoxia and increased mortality in various patient groups. Critically unwell and injured patients are routinely given high concentration oxygen in th...

    Authors: P. Leitch, A. L. Hudson, J. E. Griggs, R. Stolmeijer, R. M. Lyon and E. ter Avest
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:134
  37. With an aging population, the number of elderly individuals exposed to traumatic injuries is increasing. The elderly age criterion for traumatic injuries has been inconsistent in the literature. This study aim...

    Authors: Ji Hwan Lee, Min Joung Kim, Ju Young Hong, Jinwoo Myung, Yun Ho Roh and Sung Phil Chung
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:133
  38. There is evidence supporting the use of beta-blockade in patients with traumatic brain injury. The reduction in sympathetic drive is thought to underlie the relationship between beta-blockade and increased sur...

    Authors: Lin Sadi, Gabriel Sjölin and Rebecka Ahl Hulme
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:132
  39. Witnessing an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a traumatic experience. This study analyses bystanders` psychological processing of OHCA. We examined the potential impact of bystanders performing resusc...

    Authors: Peter Brinkrolf, Bibiana Metelmann, Camilla Metelmann, Mina Baumgarten, Carolin Scharte, Alexander Zarbock, Klaus Hahnenkamp and Andreas Bohn
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:131
  40. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major healthcare challenges worldwide resulting in an exponential increase in the need for hospital- and intensive care support for COVID-19 patients. As a result...

    Authors: Nadia A. G. Hakkenbrak, Sverre A. I. Loggers, Eva Lubbers, Jarik de Geus, Stefan F. van Wonderen, Eva Berkeveld, Sarah Mikdad, Georgios F. Giannakopoulos, Kees J. Ponsen and Frank W. Bloemers
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:130
  41. The aim of this manikin study was to evaluate the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with restricted patient access during simulated avalanche rescue using over-the-head and straddle position as co...

    Authors: Bernd Wallner, Luca Moroder, Hannah Salchner, Peter Mair, Stefanie Wallner, Gabriel Putzer, Giacomo Strapazzon, Markus Falk and Hermann Brugger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:129

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:143

  42. Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances are some of the reversible causes of cardiac arrest and can be diagnosed even in the pre-hospital setting with a mobile analyser for point-of-care testing (POCT).

    Authors: Tobias Gruebl, B. Ploeger, E. Wranze-Bielefeld, M. Mueller, W. Schmidbauer, C. Kill and S. Betz
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:128
  43. Pre-hospital identification of major trauma in elderly patients is key for delivery of optimal care, however triage of this group is challenging. Elderly-specific triage criteria may be valuable. This systemat...

    Authors: Adam J. Boulton, Donna Peel, Usama Rahman and Elaine Cole
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:127
  44. Unused ('idle') peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) are those not used within 24 hours of insertion. There is little data on cannulation practices and idle PIVC rates in emergency settings, especially the pre...

    Authors: Hugo Evison, Amy Sweeny, Jamie Ranse, Mercedes Carrington, Nicole Marsh, Joshua Byrnes, Claire M. Rickard, Peter J. Carr and Gerben Keijzers
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:126
  45. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with increased risk of traumatic injury, and has negative impact on clinical outcome in trauma patients. Previous studies have focused on specific drugs...

    Authors: Henrik Andreas Torp, Svetlana Skurtveit, Nils Oddvar Skaga, Ingebjørg Gustavsen, Jon Michael Gran and Leiv Arne Rosseland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:125
  46. The extent to which Point-of-care of ultrasound (POCUS) is used in different European helicopter EMS (HEMS) is unknown. We aimed to study the availability, perception, and future aspects of POCUS in the Europe...

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Marcus Rudolph, Jürgen Knapp, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Cor Slagt, Lars Jacobsen, Henryk Pich, Michael D. Christian, Didier Dandrifosse and Fikri M. Abu-Zidan
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:124
  47. The scientific evidence regarding the risk of delayed intracranial bleeding (DB) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in patients administered an antiplatelet agent (APA) is scant and incomplete. In additi...

    Authors: Giorgio Colombo, Mattia Bonzi, Elisa Fiorelli, Alessandro Jachetti, Viviana Bozzano, Giovanni Casazza, Monica Solbiati and Giorgio Costantino
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:123

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