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  1. The helicopter emergency services (HEMS) Benefit Score (HBS) is a nine-level scoring system developed to evaluate the benefits of HEMS missions. The HBS has been in clinical use for two decades in its original...

    Authors: Anssi Heino, Lasse Raatiniemi, Timo Iirola, Merja Meriläinen, Janne Liisanantti and Miretta Tommila
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:151
  2. In the pre-hospital setting, non-urgent patients with non-specific chief complaints pose assessment challenges for the emergency medical systems (EMS). Severely ill patients should be identified among these pa...

    Authors: Milla Jousi, Marja Mäkinen, Johanna Kaartinen, Leena Meriläinen and Maaret Castrén
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:150
  3. Authors: Asger Sonne, Sarita Egholm, Laurits Elgaard, Niklas Breindahl, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Vagn Eskesen, Freddy Lippert, Frans Boch Waldorf, Nicolai Lohse and Lars Simon Rasmussen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:149

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:118

  4. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is, by its nature, a challenging context that may create risks for both patients and employees. It is also known that an organisation’s safety culture has an influence on both ...

    Authors: Anu Venesoja, Veronica Lindström, Pasi Aronen, Maaret Castrén and Susanna Tella
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:148
  5. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) performed at the emergency scene in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) can minimize low-flow time. Target temperature management (TTM) after cardiac arres...

    Authors: Walter Petermichl, Alois Philipp, Karl-Anton Hiller, Maik Foltan, Bernhard Floerchinger, Bernhard Graf and Dirk Lunz
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:147
  6. Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction and a major healthcare burden worldwide. Although sepsis is a medical emergency that requires immediate management, screening for the occurrence of sepsis is diff...

    Authors: Joon-myoung Kwon, Ye Rang Lee, Min-Seung Jung, Yoon-Ji Lee, Yong-Yeon Jo, Da-Young Kang, Soo Youn Lee, Yong-Hyeon Cho, Jae-Hyun Shin, Jang-Hyeon Ban and Kyung-Hee Kim
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:145
  7. There is little evidence of which sepsis screening tool to use in the ambulance setting. The primary aim of the current study was to compare the performance of NEWS2 (National Early Warning score 2) and RETTS ...

    Authors: Ulrika M. Wallgren, Jan Sjölin, Hans Järnbert-Pettersson and Lisa Kurland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:144
  8. Authors: Bernd Wallner, Luca Moroder, Hannah Salchner, Peter Mair, Stefanie Wallner, Gabriel Putzer, Giacomo Strapazzon, Markus Falk and Hermann Brugger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:143

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:129

  9. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during cardiac arrest (ECPR) has increased exponentially. However, reported outcomes vary considerably due to differing study designs and selection criteri...

    Authors: Sameer Karve, Dominique Lahood, Arne Diehl, Aidan Burrell, David H. Tian, Tim Southwood, Paul Forrest and Mark Dennis
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:142
  10. Patients with electrical injury are considered to be at risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Assessing the risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) is the cornerstone of patient management. The aim of th...

    Authors: Delphine Douillet, Stéphanie Kalwant, Yara Amro, Benjamin Gicquel, Idriss Arnaudet, Dominique Savary, Quentin Le Bastard and François Javaudin
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:141

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:154

  11. Major incidents (MI) are rare occurrences in Scandinavia. Literature depicting Scandinavian MI management is scarce and case reports and research is called for. In 2019, a trailer falling off a freight train s...

    Authors: Peter Martin Hansen, Søren Bruun Jepsen, Søren Mikkelsen and Marius Rehn
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:140
  12. The Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) questionnaire is designed for rating the non-technical performance of emergency medical teams during emergencies, e.g., resuscitation or trauma management. Original...

    Authors: Klas Karlgren, Anders Dahlström, Anderz Birkestam, Annelie Drevstam Norling, Gustav Forss, Mikael Andersson Franko, Simon Cooper, Thomas Leijon and Charlotta Paulsson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:139
  13. Evidenced-based guidelines on when to cease resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are limited and support for paramedics typically defaults to the senior clinician. Senior clinicians include paramedi...

    Authors: Ali Coppola, Sarah Black and Ruth Endacott
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:138
  14. Penetrating injuries to the neck pose a unique challenge to clinicians due to the proximity of multiple significant anatomical structures with little protective soft tissue coverage. Injuries to this area, whi...

    Authors: Christopher Simpson, Harriet Tucker and Anthony Hudson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:137
  15. Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) is used for emergency tracheal intubation to minimise the risk of pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents. Ketamine and propofol are two commonly used induction agents for RSI i...

    Authors: Niklas Breindahl, Josefine Baekgaard, Rasmus Ejlersgaard Christensen, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Andreas Creutzburg, Jacob Steinmetz and Lars S. Rasmussen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:136
  16. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the French Government imposed various containment strategies, such as severe lockdown (SL) or moderate lockdown (ML). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both st...

    Authors: Jean-Denis Moyer, Paer-Selim Abback, Sophie Hamada, Thibault Martinez, Marie Werner and Arthur James
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:135
  17. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between hyperoxia and increased mortality in various patient groups. Critically unwell and injured patients are routinely given high concentration oxygen in th...

    Authors: P. Leitch, A. L. Hudson, J. E. Griggs, R. Stolmeijer, R. M. Lyon and E. ter Avest
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:134
  18. With an aging population, the number of elderly individuals exposed to traumatic injuries is increasing. The elderly age criterion for traumatic injuries has been inconsistent in the literature. This study aim...

    Authors: Ji Hwan Lee, Min Joung Kim, Ju Young Hong, Jinwoo Myung, Yun Ho Roh and Sung Phil Chung
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:133
  19. There is evidence supporting the use of beta-blockade in patients with traumatic brain injury. The reduction in sympathetic drive is thought to underlie the relationship between beta-blockade and increased sur...

    Authors: Lin Sadi, Gabriel Sjölin and Rebecka Ahl Hulme
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:132
  20. Witnessing an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a traumatic experience. This study analyses bystanders` psychological processing of OHCA. We examined the potential impact of bystanders performing resusc...

    Authors: Peter Brinkrolf, Bibiana Metelmann, Camilla Metelmann, Mina Baumgarten, Carolin Scharte, Alexander Zarbock, Klaus Hahnenkamp and Andreas Bohn
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:131
  21. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major healthcare challenges worldwide resulting in an exponential increase in the need for hospital- and intensive care support for COVID-19 patients. As a result...

    Authors: Nadia A. G. Hakkenbrak, Sverre A. I. Loggers, Eva Lubbers, Jarik de Geus, Stefan F. van Wonderen, Eva Berkeveld, Sarah Mikdad, Georgios F. Giannakopoulos, Kees J. Ponsen and Frank W. Bloemers
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:130
  22. The aim of this manikin study was to evaluate the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with restricted patient access during simulated avalanche rescue using over-the-head and straddle position as co...

    Authors: Bernd Wallner, Luca Moroder, Hannah Salchner, Peter Mair, Stefanie Wallner, Gabriel Putzer, Giacomo Strapazzon, Markus Falk and Hermann Brugger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:129

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:143

  23. Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances are some of the reversible causes of cardiac arrest and can be diagnosed even in the pre-hospital setting with a mobile analyser for point-of-care testing (POCT).

    Authors: Tobias Gruebl, B. Ploeger, E. Wranze-Bielefeld, M. Mueller, W. Schmidbauer, C. Kill and S. Betz
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:128
  24. Pre-hospital identification of major trauma in elderly patients is key for delivery of optimal care, however triage of this group is challenging. Elderly-specific triage criteria may be valuable. This systemat...

    Authors: Adam J. Boulton, Donna Peel, Usama Rahman and Elaine Cole
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:127
  25. Unused ('idle') peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) are those not used within 24 hours of insertion. There is little data on cannulation practices and idle PIVC rates in emergency settings, especially the pre...

    Authors: Hugo Evison, Amy Sweeny, Jamie Ranse, Mercedes Carrington, Nicole Marsh, Joshua Byrnes, Claire M. Rickard, Peter J. Carr and Gerben Keijzers
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:126
  26. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with increased risk of traumatic injury, and has negative impact on clinical outcome in trauma patients. Previous studies have focused on specific drugs...

    Authors: Henrik Andreas Torp, Svetlana Skurtveit, Nils Oddvar Skaga, Ingebjørg Gustavsen, Jon Michael Gran and Leiv Arne Rosseland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:125
  27. The extent to which Point-of-care of ultrasound (POCUS) is used in different European helicopter EMS (HEMS) is unknown. We aimed to study the availability, perception, and future aspects of POCUS in the Europe...

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Marcus Rudolph, Jürgen Knapp, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Cor Slagt, Lars Jacobsen, Henryk Pich, Michael D. Christian, Didier Dandrifosse and Fikri M. Abu-Zidan
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:124
  28. The scientific evidence regarding the risk of delayed intracranial bleeding (DB) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in patients administered an antiplatelet agent (APA) is scant and incomplete. In additi...

    Authors: Giorgio Colombo, Mattia Bonzi, Elisa Fiorelli, Alessandro Jachetti, Viviana Bozzano, Giovanni Casazza, Monica Solbiati and Giorgio Costantino
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:123
  29. Self-reported health and life satisfaction are considered important outcomes in people surviving cardiac arrest. However, most previous studies have reported limited aspects on health, often based on composite...

    Authors: Patrik Hellström, Kristofer Årestedt and Johan Israelsson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:122
  30. Physical trauma is associated with mortality, long-term pain and morbidity. Effective pain management is fundamental in trauma care and opioids are indispensable for treating acute pain; however, the use and m...

    Authors: Jeanette Finstad, Olav Røise, Leiv Arne Rosseland, Thomas Clausen and Ingrid Amalia Havnes
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:121
  31. An incident command structure is commonly used to manage responses to major incidents. In the hospital incident command structure, the medical officer in charge (MOC) is in a key position. The decision-making ...

    Authors: Karin Hugelius, Monica Rådestad, H. Al-Dhahir and L. Kurland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:120
  32. There is no global consensus on the use of prehospital triage system in mass casualty incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most commonly used pre-existing prehospital triage systems for the...

    Authors: Amir Khorram-Manesh, Johan Nordling, Eric Carlström, Krzysztof Goniewicz, Roberto Faccincani and Frederick M. Burkle
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:119
  33. A spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most critical neurological emergencies a dispatcher can face in an emergency telephone call. No study has yet investigated which symptoms are presente...

    Authors: Asger Sonne, Sarita Egholm, Laurits Elgaard, Niklas Breindahl, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Vagn Eskesen, Freddy Lippert, Frans Boch Waldorff, Nicolai Lohse and Lars Simon Rasmussen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:118

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:149

  34. This study aimed to compare and validate the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA); cardiac arrest hospital prognosis (CAHP); non-shockable rhythm, unwitnessed arrest, long no-flow or long low-flow period, blo...

    Authors: Takumi Tsuchida, Kota Ono, Kunihiko Maekawa, Takeshi Wada, Kenichi Katabami, Tomonao Yoshida and Mineji Hayakawa
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:117
  35. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with non-specific chief complaints (NSC). Patients presenting with NSCs often have normal vital signs. It has previously been establish...

    Authors: Robert Ivic, Jouni Nurmi, Lisa Kurland, Veronica Vicente, Veronica Lindström, Therese Djärv, Johanna Kaartinen, Maaret Castrén and Katarina Bohm
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:116
  36. Incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest is reported to be 0.8 to 4.6 per 1,000 patient admissions. Patient survival to hospital discharge with favourable functional and neurological status is around 21–30%. Th...

    Authors: Alexander Fuchs, Dominic Käser, Lorenz Theiler, Robert Greif, Jürgen Knapp and Joana Berger-Estilita
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:115
  37. People exposed to electrical injuries are often admitted to hospital for observation. Current evidence suggests that patients who have a normal ECG on admission after a low-voltage injury, with no loss of cons...

    Authors: Jamal Ahmed, Charlotte Stenkula, Sherwan Omar, Josef Ghanima, Fredrik Førsund Bremtun, Jonas Bergan, Nezar Raouf and Waleed Ghanima
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:114
  38. Prehospital care for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies with some emergency medical systems recommending direct transport of patients with moderate to severe TBI to hospitals with specialist neu...

    Authors: Charlie Aletta Sewalt, Benjamin Yaël Gravesteijn, David Menon, Hester Floor Lingsma, Andrew I. R. Maas, Nino Stocchetti, Esmee Venema and Fiona E. Lecky
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:113
  39. Although the merit of pre-hospital critical care teams such as Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) has been universally recognized for patients with penetrating torso injuries who present with unstabl...

    Authors: M. Gavrilovski, J. E. Griggs, E. ter Avest and R. M. Lyon
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:112
  40. The COVID-19 pandemic limited hospital resources and necessitated interhospital transport of ICU-patients in order to provide critical care to all patients in the Netherlands. However, not all hospitals have a...

    Authors: Geert-Jan van Geffen, Ed J. Spoelder, Amanda Tijben and Cornelis Slagt
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:111
  41. Citizen responder programmes dispatch volunteer citizens to initiate resuscitation in nearby out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) before the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival. Little is known about th...

    Authors: Anne-Sofie Linde Jellestad, Fredrik Folke, Rune Molin, Rasmus Meyer Lyngby, Carolina Malta Hansen and Linn Andelius
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:110
  42. Authors: Iscander M. Maissan, Boris Vlottes, Sanne Hoeks, Jan Bosch, Robert Jan Stolker and Dennis den Hartog
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:109

    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:87

  43. Motor vehicle collisions account for 1.3 million deaths and 50 million serious injuries worldwide each year. However, the majority of people involved in such incidents are uninjured or have injuries which do n...

    Authors: Tim Nutbeam, Rob Fenwick, Barbara May, Willem Stassen, Jason E. Smith, Lee Wallis, Mike Dayson and James Shippen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:108
  44. Calls to emergency medical lines are an essential component in the chain of survival. Operators make critical decisions based on information they elicit from callers. Although smooth cooperation is necessary, ...

    Authors: Jennifer Gerwing, Jon Erik Steen-Hansen, Trond Mjaaland, Bård Fossli Jensen, Olav Eielsen, Owen Matthew Truscott Thomas and Pål Gulbrandsen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:107
  45. There exists a therapeutic conflict between haemorrhage control and prevention of thromboembolic events following polytrauma and complications are not uncommon. Such opposing therapies can result in unexpected...

    Authors: Mathew Brun, Shane Brun, David Pearson and Martin Wullschleger
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:106
  46. Organ donation after brain death is the standard practice in many countries. Rates are low globally. This study explores the potential national number of candidates for uncontrolled donations after cardiac dea...

    Authors: Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Timothy Xin Zhong Tan, Ejaz Latiff, Nur Shahidah, Yih Yng Ng, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Shir Lynn Lim, Pin Pin Pek, Han Nee Gan, Desmond Renhao Mao, Michael Yih Chong Chia, Si Oon Cheah, Lai Peng Tham and Marcus Eng Hock Ong
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:105
  47. In the ‘can’t intubate can’t oxygenate’ scenario, techniques to achieve front of neck access to the airway have been described in the literature but there is a lack of guidance on the optimal method for securi...

    Authors: Christopher J Groombridge, Amit Maini, Joseph Mathew, Yesul Kim, Mark Fitzgerald, De Villiers Smit and Gerard O’Reilly
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:104
  48. Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outc...

    Authors: Ester Holmström, Ilmar Efendijev, Rahul Raj, Pirkka T. Pekkarinen, Erik Litonius and Markus B. Skrifvars
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:103
  49. Previous studies have stated that hyperventilation often occurs in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mainly due to excessive ventilation frequencies, especially when a manual valve bag is used. Transport ven...

    Authors: Simon Orlob, Johannes Wittig, Christoph Hobisch, Daniel Auinger, Gabriel Honnef, Tobias Fellinger, Robin Ristl, Otmar Schindler, Philipp Metnitz, Georg Feigl and Gerhard Prause
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:102

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