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  1. The Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score is widely used in research and quality assurance to assess neurologic outcome following cardiac arrest. However, little is known about the inter- and intra-reviewe...

    Authors: Kamal Ajam, Laura S Gold, Stacey S Beck, Susan Damon, Randi Phelps and Thomas D Rea
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:38
  2. Quality improvement initiatives in emergency medicine (EM) often suffer from a lack of benchmarking data on the quality of care. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1. To assess the feasibility of colle...

    Authors: Ulf Ekelund, Lisa Kurland, Fredrik Eklund, Paulus Torkki, Anna Letterstål, Per Lindmarker and Maaret Castrén
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:37
  3. Alternatives to endotracheal intubation (ETI) are required when access to the cranial end of the patient is restricted. In this study, the success rate and time duration of standard intubation techniques were ...

    Authors: Anders R Nakstad and Mårten Sandberg
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:36
  4. Rapid fluid administration is often required for resuscitation when patients are admitted in emergency department with hypovolemic shock or excessive blood loss. Various methods have been described earlier to ...

    Authors: Dheeraj Kapoor and Manpreet Singh
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:35
  5. Bowel entrapment within a pelvic injury is rare and difficult to diagnose. Usually, it is diagnosed late because of concomitant abdominal injuries. It may present itself as an acute intestinal obstruction or, ...

    Authors: Ewan D Ritchie, Eelco J Veen, Jan Olsman and Koop Bosscha
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:34
  6. A recent paper has drawn attention to the paucity of widely accepted quality indicators for trauma care. At the same time, several studies have measured whether mortality of trauma patients changes between nor...

    Authors: Stefano Di Bartolomeo
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:33
  7. To describe the organization of an ECMO-centre from triage by telephone to the phase of inter-hospital transportation with ECMO of patients affected by H1N1-induced ARDS, describing techniques and equipment used.

    Authors: Marco Ciapetti, Giovanni Cianchi, Giovanni Zagli, Cesare Greco, Andrea Pasquini, Rosario Spina, Stefano Batacchi, Manuela Bonizzoli, Massimo Bonacchi, Chiara Lazzeri, Pasquale Bernardo and Adriano Peris
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:32
  8. In critically ill patients intravascular volume status and pulmonary edema need to be quantified as soon as possible. Many critically ill patients undergo a computed tomography (CT)-scan of the thorax after ad...

    Authors: Bernd Saugel, Konstantin Holzapfel, Jens Stollfuss, Tibor Schuster, Veit Phillip, Caroline Schultheiss, Roland M Schmid and Wolfgang Huber
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:31
  9. Earthquakes are renowned as being amongst the most dangerous and destructive types of natural disasters. Iran, a developing country in Asia, is prone to earthquakes and is ranked as one of the most vulnerable ...

    Authors: Ahmadreza Djalali, Hamidreza Khankeh, Gunnar Öhlén, Maaret Castrén and Lisa Kurland
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:30
  10. Many trauma registries have used the Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990 Revision Update 98 (AIS98) to classify injuries. In the current AIS version (Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 Update 2008 - AIS08), injury classi...

    Authors: Cameron S Palmer, Melanie Franklyn, Christine Read-Allsopp, Susan McLellan and Louise E Niggemeyer
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:29
  11. Acute abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for admitting patients to the emergency department for surgical evaluation. A wide number of differential diagnoses are available and their pre-test lik...

    Authors: Kjetil Søreide
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:28
  12. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to evaluate the diagnostic value of preoperative serum High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 (HMGB-1) levels in patients with Acute Appendicitis (AA) who show normal...

    Authors: Yavuz Albayrak, Ayse Albayrak, Muhammet Celik, Ibrahim Gelincik, Ismail Demiryılmaz, Rahsan Yildirim and Bunyami Ozogul
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:27
  13. Injury scoring is important to formulate prognoses for trauma patients. Although scores based on empirical estimation allow for better prediction, those based on expert consensus, e.g. the New Injury Severity ...

    Authors: Stefano Di Bartolomeo, Chiara Ventura, Massimiliano Marino, Francesca Valent, Susanna Trombetti and Rossana De Palma
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:26
  14. In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.

    Authors: Marianne Efskind Harr, Ben Heskestad, Tor Ingebrigtsen, Bertil Romner, Pål Rønning and Eirik Helseth
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:25
  15. Sodium acetate has been shown to cause hemodynamic instability when used as a hemodialysis buffer. The pattern of hemodynamic response to injury will be evaluated between those who received sodium acetate and ...

    Authors: Andrew McCague, Mira Dermendjieva, Ryan Hutchinson, David T Wong and Nguyen Dao
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:24
  16. The present study was performed to compare blood product consumption and clinical results in consecutive, unselected trauma patients during the first 6 months of year 2002, 2004 and 2007.

    Authors: Anders R Nakstad, Nils O Skaga, Johan Pillgram-Larsen, Berit Gran and Hans E Heier
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:23
  17. Trauma patients have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after trauma. The aim of the study was to assess HRQOL during the first year after trauma and hospital stay in trauma patients admitted to a...

    Authors: Kirsti Tøien, Inger S Bredal, Laila Skogstad, Hilde Myhren and Øivind Ekeberg
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:22
  18. Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published con...

    Authors: Sini Saarinen, Jyrki Puolakka, James Boyd, Taneli Väyrynen, Harri Luurila and Markku Kuisma
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:21
  19. Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS) documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle...

    Authors: Trine Staff and Signe Søvik
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:20
  20. There is a great variety in how emergency medical communication centers (EMCC) are organized in different countries and sometimes, even within countries. Organizational changes in the EMCC have often occurred ...

    Authors: Veronica Lindström, Jukka Pappinen, Ann-Charlotte Falk and Maaret Castrén
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:19
  21. Admission with a multidisciplinary trauma team may be vital for the severely injured patient, as this facilitates rapid diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, patients with minor injuries do not need the ...

    Authors: Trond Dehli, Knut Fredriksen, Svein A Osbakk and Kristian Bartnes
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:18
  22. Early identification of major trauma may contribute to timely emergency care and rapid transport to an appropriate health-care facility. Several prognostic trauma models have been developed to improve early cl...

    Authors: Marius Rehn, Pablo Perel, Karen Blackhall and Hans Morten Lossius
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:17
  23. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) commonly occur after recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The preventive role and the indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the acute setting are...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pepe, Matteo Castelli, Peiman Nazerian, Simone Vanni, Massimo Del Panta, Francesco Gambassi, Primo Botti, Andrea Missanelli and Stefano Grifoni
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:16
  24. Junior physicians are sometimes sent in ambulances with critically ill patients who require urgent transfer to another hospital. Unfamiliar surroundings and personnel, time pressure, and lack of experience may...

    Authors: Christian B Høyer, Erika F Christensen and Berit Eika
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:15
  25. This paper reviews the current literature on smoke inhalation injuries with special attention to the effects of hydrogen cyanide. It is assumed that cyanide poisoning is still an overlooked diagnosis in fire v...

    Authors: Pia Lawson-Smith, Erik C Jansen and Ole Hyldegaard
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:14
  26. Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and...

    Authors: Georg Bollig, Anne G Myklebust and Kristin Østringen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:13
  27. Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood ...

    Authors: Alexander A Hanke, Stephanie Maschler, Herbert Schöchl, Felix Flöricke, Klaus Görlinger, Klaus Zanger and Peter Kienbaum
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:12
  28. Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in thos...

    Authors: Gregory S Anderson, Michael Gaetz and Jeff Masse
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:11
  29. Prehospital advanced airway management, including prehospital endotracheal intubation is challenging and recent papers have addressed the need for proper training, skill maintenance and quality control for eme...

    Authors: Leif K Rognås and Troels Martin Hansen
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:10
  30. Radiocontrast agents are a type of medical contrast material used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in X-ray based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) or radiography. Radi...

    Authors: Tomas Belzunegui, Clint Jean Louis, Laura Torrededia and Julio Oteiza
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:9
  31. This case report describes the first reported overdose of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB) lercanidipine. A 49 yr old male presented to the Emergency Department 3 hrs after the ingestion of 56...

    Authors: George Hadjipavlou, Aqib Hafeez, Ben Messer and Tom Hughes
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:8
  32. Recent advances in our approach to blood component therapy in traumatic hemorrhage have resulted in a reassessment of many of the tenants of management which were considered standards of therapy for many years...

    Authors: Steven R Allen and Jeffry L Kashuk
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:5
  33. Out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation performed by paramedics using the Macintosh blade for direct laryngoscopy is associated with a high incidence of complications. The novel technique of video laryngoscopy...

    Authors: Tim Piepho, Kathrin Weinert, Florian M Heid, Christian Werner and Rüdiger R Noppens
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:4
  34. D-CPR (Defibrillator Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) is a technique for optimal basic life support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Guidelines recommend that healthcare professionals can perform CPR ...

    Authors: Marie-Louise Södersved Källestedt, Anders Berglund, Ann-Britt Thoren, Johan Herlitz and Mats Enlund
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:3
  35. Trauma resuscitation paradigms have changed considerably over the last twenty years. Originally, the goal was to normalize a blood pressure as quickly as possible. Large volume crystalloid resuscitation was us...

    Authors: Thomas M Scalea
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:2
  36. Trauma systems should consistently monitor a given trauma population over a period of time. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and derived scores such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) are commonly used to qu...

    Authors: Cameron S Palmer and Melanie Franklyn
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2011 19:1
  37. The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma team performance shou...

    Authors: Andrew Georgiou and David J Lockey
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:66
  38. Trauma is the leading cause of loss of life expectancy worldwide. In the most seriously injured patients, coagulopathy is often present on admission. Therefore, transfusion strategies to increase the ratio of ...

    Authors: Jesper Dirks, Henrik Jørgensen, Carsten H Jensen, Sisse R Ostrowski and Pär I Johansson
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:65
  39. Clot strength by Thrombelastography (TEG) is associated with mortality during trauma and has been linked to severity of tissue hypoperfusion. However, the optimal method for monitoring this important relations...

    Authors: Nathan J White, Erika J Martin, Yongyun Shin, Donald F Brophy, Robert F Diegelmann and Kevin R Ward
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:64
  40. Prehospital care is classified into ALS- (advanced life support) and BLS- (basic life support) levels according to the methods used. ALS-level prehospital care uses invasive methods, such as intravenous fluids...

    Authors: Olli-Pekka Ryynänen, Timo Iirola, Janne Reitala, Heikki Pälve and Antti Malmivaara
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:62
  41. Incidence of Blunt Cerebrovascular Injuries (BCVI) after head injury has been reported as 0.5-1% of all admissions for blunt trauma, with a high stroke and mortality rate. The purpose of this study is to evalu...

    Authors: Marco Ciapetti, Alessandro Circelli, Giovanni Zagli, Maria Luisa Migliaccio, Rosario Spina, Alessandro Alessi, Manlio Acquafresca, Marco Bartolini and Adriano Peris
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:61
  42. The pre-hospital assessment of a blunt trauma is difficult. Common triage tools are the mechanism of injury (MOI), vital signs, and anatomic injury (AI). Compared to the other tools, the clinical assessment of...

    Authors: Hetti Kirves, Lauri Handolin, Mika Niemelä, Janne Pitkäniemi and Tarja Randell
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:60
  43. CPR has a proven role in improving survival in cardiac arrest victims, especially those who are outside the hospital. Guidelines published by the AHA have included CPR as a vital intervention for decades. The ...

    Authors: Umair Khalid and Amyn Abdul Malik Juma
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:59
  44. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is closely linked to the quality of CPR, but in real life, resuscitation during prehospital care and ambulance transport is often suboptimal. Mechanical chest comp...

    Authors: Gavin D Perkins, Malcolm Woollard, Matthew W Cooke, Charles Deakin, Jessica Horton, Ranjit Lall, Sarah E Lamb, Chris McCabe, Tom Quinn, Anne Slowther and Simon Gates
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:58
  45. The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from ...

    Authors: Claas T Buschmann, Patrick Gahr, Michael Tsokos, Wolfgang Ertel and Johannes K Fakler
    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:55

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