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  1. There is a general decline in penetrating abdominal trauma throughout the western world. As a result of that, there is a significant loss of expertise in dealing with this type of injury particularly when the ...

    Authors: Tugba H Yilmaz, Brown C Ndofor, Martin D Smith and Elias Degiannis

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:40

    Content type: Commentary

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  2. Ultrasound guidance during central line insertion has significantly reduced complications associated with this procedure and has led to it being incorporated as standard of care in many institutions. However, ...

    Authors: Lawrence M Gillman, Michael Blaivas, Jason Lord, Azzam Al-Kadi and Andrew W Kirkpatrick

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:39

    Content type: Original research

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  3. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disorder characterized by increased capillary hyperpermeability leading to hypovolemic shock due to a markedly increased shift of fluid and protein from the in...

    Authors: Bernd Saugel, Andreas Umgelter, Friedrich Martin, Veit Phillip, Roland M Schmid and Wolfgang Huber

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:38

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (...

    Authors: Rune Molin, Peter Hallas, Mikkel Brabrand and Thomas Andersen Schmidt

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:37

    Content type: Original research

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  5. We report the case of a 16 year old male who was the victim of a drive by shooting sustaining the rare but recognised complication of cardiovascular bullet embolism. He was seen as a trauma call in the emergen...

    Authors: Nicholas Greaves

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:36

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound ...

    Authors: Philipp Lichte, Reiner Oberbeck, Marcel Binnebösel, Rene Wildenauer, Hans-Christoph Pape and Philipp Kobbe

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:35

    Content type: Review

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  7. Metabolic changes after major trauma have a complex underlying pathophysiology. The early posttraumatic stress response is associated with a state of hyperinflammation, with increased oxygen consumption and en...

    Authors: Philip F Stahel, Michael A Flierl and Ernest E Moore

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:34

    Content type: Commentary

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  8. Damage of laryngeal mask airway and other supraglottic airway devices has always been a matter of concern. Although manufacturer recommends maximum 40 uses of LMA (and its congeners) but damage before 40 uses ...

    Authors: Manpreet Singh, Ritu Bharti and Dheeraj Kapoor

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:33

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  9. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO...

    Authors: Pia Lawson-Smith, Erik C Jansen, Linda Hilsted and Ole Hyldegaard

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:32

    Content type: Original research

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  10. Immediate defibrillation is the decisive determinant of prognosis in patients suffering from cardiac/circulatory arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation (VF). Therefore, various national and international as...

    Authors: Christoph Hanefeld

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:31

    Content type: Original research

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  11. Anaesthesiologists are airway management experts, which is one of the reasons why they serve as pre-hospital emergency physicians in many countries. However, limited data are available on the actual quality an...

    Authors: Stephen JM Sollid, Hans Morten Lossius and Eldar Søreide

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:30

    Content type: Original research

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  12. Fluids are often given liberally after the return of spontaneous circulation. However, the optimal fluid regimen in survivors of cardiac arrest is unknown. Recent studies indicate an increased fluid requiremen...

    Authors: Bård E Heradstveit, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Jørund Langørgen, Stig-Morten Hammersborg, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Rune Fanebust, Elna-Marie Larsson and Jon-Kenneth Heltne

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:29

    Content type: Original research

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  13. Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been indicated as treatment for acute respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Here we describe our first year experience of in...

    Authors: Adriano Peris, Giovanni Cianchi, Simona Biondi, Manuela Bonizzoli, Andrea Pasquini, Massimo Bonacchi, Marco Ciapetti, Giovanni Zagli, Simona Bacci, Chiara Lazzeri, Pasquale Bernardo, Erminia Mascitelli, Guido Sani and Gian Franco Gensini

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:28

    Content type: Original research

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  14. An interpretation of the metabolic response to injury in patients with severe accidental or surgical trauma is made. In the last century, various authors attributed a meaning to the post-traumatic inflammatory...

    Authors: Maria-Angeles Aller, Jose-Ignacio Arias, Alfredo Alonso-Poza and Jaime Arias

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:27

    Content type: Review

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  15. Increasing age and significant pre-existing medical conditions (PMCs) are independent risk factors associated with increased mortality after trauma. Our aim was to review all trauma deaths, identifying the cau...

    Authors: Nicholas D Clement, Carole Tennant and Cyrus Muwanga

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:26

    Content type: Original research

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  16. Training of lay first responder personnel situated closer to the potential victims than medical professionals is a strategy potentially capable of shortening the interval between collapse and start of cardiopu...

    Authors: Sverre Rørtveit and Eivind Meland

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:25

    Content type: Original research

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  17. Despite significant medical advances and improvement in overall mortality rate following burn injury, the treatment of patients with extensive burns remains a major challenge for intensivists. We present a stu...

    Authors: Vittorio Pavoni, Lara Gianesello, Laura Paparella, Laura Tadini Buoninsegni and Elisabetta Barboni

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:24

    Content type: Original research

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  18. Microgrants are a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine is...

    Authors: Peter Hallas, Mikkel Brabrand and Lars Folkestad

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:23

    Content type: Commentary

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  19. Endotracheal intubation (ETI) has been considered an essential part of pre-hospital advanced life support. Pre-hospital ETI, however, is a complex intervention also for airway specialist like anaesthesiologist...

    Authors: Stephen JM Sollid, Hans Morten Lossius, Anders R Nakstad, Terje Aven and Eldar Søreide

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:22

    Content type: Original research

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  20. To ensure the rapid and correct triage of patients in potential need of specialized treatment, Norwegian hospitals are expected to establish trauma teams with predefined criteria for their activation. The obje...

    Authors: Kristin T Larsen, Oddvar Uleberg and Eirik Skogvoll

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:21

    Content type: Original research

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  21. Initiated by a clinical case of critical endotracheal tube (ETT) obstruction, we aimed to determine factors that potentially contribute to the development of endotracheal tube obstruction by its inflated cuff....

    Authors: Christian Hofstetter, Bertram Scheller, Sandra Hoegl, Martin G Mack, Bernhard Zwissler and Christian Byhahn

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:18

    Content type: Original research

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  22. Injury severity measures are based either on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) or the International Classification of diseases (ICD). The latter is more convenient because routinely collected by clinicians fo...

    Authors: Stefano Di Bartolomeo, Silvia Tillati, Francesca Valent, Loris Zanier and Fabio Barbone

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:17

    Content type: Original research

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  23. Undressing the chest of a cardiac arrest victim may delay the initiation of chest compressions. Furthermore, expecting laypeople to undress the chest may increase bystander reluctance to perform cardiopulmonar...

    Authors: Rasmus B Mortensen, Christian B Høyer, Mathias K Pedersen, Peter G Brindley and Jens C Nielsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:16

    Content type: Original research

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  24. The inter-hospital transfer of patients is crucial to a well functioning trauma system, and the transfer process may serve as a quality indicator for regional trauma care. However, the assessment of the transf...

    Authors: Hans Morten Lossius, Thomas Kristiansen, Kjetil G Ringdal and Marius Rehn

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:15

    Content type: Commentary

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  25. Quality assessment of any trauma system involves the evaluation of the transferring patterns. This study aims to assess interfacility transfers in the absence of a formal trauma system setting and to estimate ...

    Authors: Stylianos Katsaragakis, Panagiotis G Drimousis, Eleftheria S Kleidi, Kostas Toutouzas, Eleftherios Lapidakis, Georgios Papadakis, Kritolaos Daskalakis, Andreas Larentzakis, Maria E Theodoraki and Dimitrios Theodorou

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:14

    Content type: Original research

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  26. We describe a system of scenario-based training using simple mannequins under realistic circumstances for the training of pre-hospital care providers.

    Authors: Per P Bredmose, Karel Habig, Gareth Davies, Gareth Grier and David J Lockey

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:13

    Content type: Original research

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  27. Calcium antagonist overdose can cause severe deterioration of hemodynamics unresponsible to treatment with beta adrenergic inotropes. The aim of the study was to evaluate in an experimental model the effects o...

    Authors: Jouni Kurola, Heli Leppikangas, Jarkko Magga, Leena Lindgren, Vesa Kiviniemi, Juha Rutanen and Esko Ruokonen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:12

    Content type: Original research

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  28. High-grade blunt renal trauma has been treated by arterial embolization (AE). However, it is unknown whether AE preserves renal function, because conventional renal function tests reflect total renal function ...

    Authors: Seiji Morita, Sadaki Inokuchi, Tomoatsu Tsuji, Tomokazu Fukushima, Shigeo Higami, Takeshi Yamagiwa and Iizuka Shinichi

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:11

    Content type: Original research

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  29. There is a lack of epidemiological knowledge on medical emergencies outside hospitals in Norway. The aim of the present study was to obtain representative data on the epidemiology of medical emergencies classi...

    Authors: Erik Zakariassen, Robert Anders Burman and Steinar Hunskaar

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:9

    Content type: Original research

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  30. Patients referred to a medical admission unit (MAU) represent a broad spectrum of disease severity. In the interest of allocating resources to those who might potentially benefit most from clinical interventio...

    Authors: Mikkel Brabrand, Lars Folkestad, Nicola Groes Clausen, Torben Knudsen and Jesper Hallas

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:8

    Content type: Review

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  31. A 48-year-old previously healthy woman suffered witnessed cardiac arrest in hospital. She achieved return of spontaneous circulation and was transferred to the intensive care unit. During the following 3 hours...

    Authors: Anders Rostrup Nakstad, Christian Eek, Dag Aarhus, Anne Larsen and Kristina Hermann Haugaa

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:7

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Ureteral trauma is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all urologic traumas. However, a missed ureteral injury can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the l...

    Authors: Bruno MT Pereira, Michael P Ogilvie, Juan Carlos Gomez-Rodriguez, Mark L Ryan, Diego Peña, Antonio C Marttos, Louis R Pizano and Mark G McKenney

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:6

    Content type: Review

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  33. The survival to discharge rate after unwitnessed, non-cardiac out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is dismal. We report the successful use of therapeutic hypothermia in a 26-year old woman with OHCA due to in...

    Authors: Michael Busch and Eldar Søreide

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:4

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Advanced resuscitation skills training is an important and enjoyable part of medical training, but requires small group instruction to ensure active participation of all students. Increases in student numbers ...

    Authors: Thomas C Hughes, Zoeb Jiwaji, Kamaldeep Lally, Antonia Lloyd-Lavery, Amrit Lota, Andrea Dale, Robert Janas and Christopher JK Bulstrode

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:3

    Content type: Original research

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  35. Therapeutic hypothermia has been proven to be effective in improving neurological outcome in patients after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Data concerning the effect of hypothermia treatm...

    Authors: Christian Storm, Jens Nee, Anne Krueger, Joerg C Schefold and Dietrich Hasper

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:2

    Content type: Original research

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  36. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been hard to assess due to the lack of standard definitions. Recently, the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-Stage Kidney (RIFLE) classification has been proposed to classify AK...

    Authors: Ernestina Gomes, Rui Antunes, Cláudia Dias, Rui Araújo and Altamiro Costa-Pereira

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2010 18:1

    Content type: Original research

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  37. Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, ta...

    Authors: Pål Comstedt, Merete Storgaard and Annmarie T Lassen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:67

    Content type: Original research

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  38. The induction of hypothermia for cellular protection is well established in several clinical settings. Its role in trauma patients, however, is controversial. This review discusses the benefits and complicatio...

    Authors: Tareq Kheirbek, Ashley R Kochanek and Hasan B Alam

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:65

    Content type: Review

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  39. Blunt Traumatic Pericardial Rupture (BTPR) with resulting cardiac herniation following chest trauma is an unusual and often fatal condition. Although there has been a multitude of case reports of this conditio...

    Authors: Peter B Sherren, Robert Galloway and Marie Healy

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:64

    Content type: Case report

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  40. An 80 years old man suffered a cardiac arrest shortly after arrival to his local health department. Basic Life Support was started promptly and nine minutes later, on evaluation by an Advanced Life Support tea...

    Authors: Mafalda Miranda, Pedro J Sousa, Jorge Ferreira, Maria J Andrade, Pedro A Gonçalves and Cristina Romão

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:63

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Patients with severe pelvic fractures represent about 3% of all skeletal fractures. Hemodynamic compromise in unstable pelvic fractures is associated with arterial hemorrhage in less than 20% of patients. Angi...

    Authors: Igor Jeroukhimov, Itamar Ashkenazi, Boris Kessel, Vladimir Gaziants, Amir Peer, Alexander Altshuler, Vladimir Nesterenko, Ricardo Alfici and Ariel Halevy

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:62

    Content type: Original research

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  42. Pain is a common condition among prehospital patients. The present study is designed to determine whether adding low-dose ketamine as additional analgesia improves the pain/nausea scores and hemodynamic parame...

    Authors: Patric Johansson, Poul Kongstad and Anders Johansson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:61

    Content type: Original research

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  43. Previous research shows that surgeon-performed ultrasound for patients presenting with abdominal pain in the emergency department leads both to higher diagnostic accuracy and to other benefits. We have evaluat...

    Authors: Anna Lindelius, Staffan Törngren, Laila Nilsson, Hans Pettersson and Johanna Adami

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:60

    Content type: Original research

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  44. Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple ma...

    Authors: Torben Wisborg, Guttorm Brattebø, Åse Brinchmann-Hansen and Kari Schrøder Hansen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:59

    Content type: Original research

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  45. Advanced airway management is a critical intervention that can harm the patient if performed poorly. The available literature on this subject is rich, but it is difficult to interpret due to a huge variability...

    Authors: Stephen JM Sollid, David Lockey and Hans Morten Lossius

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2009 17:58

    Content type: Original research

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